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newspapers : 1914 

Newspapers : 1914


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Evening News.
Sydney, Thursday 1 January 1914, page 4.




Body shooting down the crest of a big green breaker is very nearly the limit of thrill and sensation.
Many of us have been across the scenic railway at White City; many, again,
have shot the chute, while others have raced in toboggans.
We have felt our hearts
jump up to our throats as we were about to make the most rapid and precipitous decents.
All these things literally teem with sensation.

It would be hard to find something more thrilling
, however, than breaker shooting.
If there is anything at all, well I fancy it must be shooting
the waves with a surf board.
might be called the "dizzy-limit" of nerve thrill.
The effect of tearing along in a
motor car at something Iike 70 miles an hour is, indeed, fine, also must be "looping the lop" with an aeroplane: but these things are done by some mechanical effect, while you simply sit there.
This is not so with shoot
Your own body is the machine that is
doing everything.
lt is your own self that is
flying along through water at a rate of knots, sending the spray in all directions as you go.

You feel yourself go up hill and down dale,
and at the same time there is a keen sense of competition about the thing.
You are endeavouring,
as it were, to race the breaker to the beach.
Some succeed, most don't.
Surf-boarding is n
ot practised here very much.
The ordinances
prevent the use of a board on most of the city beaches.
Still there are isolated places
where it can be used without danger to other bathers.
The home of surf board riding is Waikiki Beach, Honolulu
, in the Hawaiian lsles.
The sport was born here centuries ago,
when the natives, in all their primeval simplicity, used to hold high carnival in the surf, under the giant shadows of the great Diamond Head.
The Hawaiian natives are really the most
adept surf-board riders in the world.
perform some wonderful feats.
It is quite a
common thing to see two natives coming in before a big teaming billow with one fellow standing on the other's back.
Then, again,
you will see a dusky gentleman coming ashore on his board, standing on his head.
I know it
sounds fairly "tough," but believe me it's on the level, for I've seen it myself.
however, must remain patent only to the islands, for there are really no other beaches in the world that Iend themselves so admirably to the sport as does Waikiki.
It is very shallow for a great distance out, even as far as hal
f a mile, and is altogether unlike the abrupt, precipitous beaches known along our own coast.
With the class of waves we get here it would be an utter impossibility to shoot them with a board.
I mean, of course, with a long, full length
The board that is most suited to ou
r shoots is the hand board, although at Manly and Freshwater long boards are very often used, but only in fairly moderate weather.
To use a big board in a heavy sea, such
as we get here, would be highly dangerous to the shooter.
The hand board is usu
ally made from a piece of cedar, about 18in to 20in long by about 8in to 10in wide.
It is square at one
end and half circular at the other, the edges being rounded off all round.
Some boards have holes in either side about
the middle of the board for the insertion of the thumbs, as with an artiste pallet. Others, again, have a loose strap across the middle from side to side, and tacked in the centre.
This forms a place for both hands while shooting, and helps a good deal in holding it.

A hand board is much more readily used in moderately shallow water than in deep.
shootlng in shallow water the board is held extended in front of the body.
As the wave
catches or breaks the shooter dives forward, as in a shoot, with arms out.
You are able in this wa
y to carry your head very high, while your shoulders are well out in advance of the wave.
In this manner a shooter is able to
travel on the smallest eddy right up to shore.
To shoot in deep water, with a board, is quite
another matter.
It is much harder, because
you only have one hand to use in "getting off.''
In taking a wave in deep water it is
necessary to lie in the "catch" of the wave, with your underneath arm extended and grasping the board, by the underneath arm I mean to interpret that if you are a right-handed swimmer your right hand will be your under arm, while your left will be your overarm.
the wave breaks you take a powerful stroke with your overarm, aod then bring it forward on to the board, atthe same moment give one solid snappy klick with the legs.
If your timing
is right this will get you 'well away.'
You will simply fly for the shore— your head
well up, eyes taking in a complete panorama of the surroundings: you give a "honk-honk" as you shoot past others, and they scatter out of your course like chickens front a motor.
our board, meanwhile, is driving the foam to either side like an ocean greyhound doing the measured mile - but do be careful that the beach policeman isn't watching you.

1914 'JOYS OF THE SURF.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 1 January, p. 4, viewed 15 August, 2013,
Noted and forwarded by John MacRitchie, Manly Local Studies Librarian, 15 August 2013, with many thanks.

Northern Star.
Lismore, Thursday 1 January 1914, page 7.


Although  two minor accidents occurred at Yamba, during the holidays, it is pleasing to know that no accidents with accidents with  fatal results happened.
Miss Blaxland, a young Grafton lady, was the victim of a nasty accident.
While playing on the rocks in the vicinity of the beach she fell and sustained a nasty cut on the hand.
She was taken to the resuscitation room of the Life Saving Brigade, where a stitch, was inserted and the wound dressed by Dr Deithelm, of Grafton, who, fortunately, happened to be surfing at the time of the accident.
The doctor spoke most highly of the Life Saving rooms and was very pleased to see such a valuable collection of first aid materials, all of which were absolutely necessary and effective
Mr. Busch, South Grafton manager of the Bank of Australasia, was also the victim of a painful accident, sustaining a nasty cut on the cheek bone, which, it is believed, was inflicted by a surf board in the surf on Saturday last.
This case was treated in the town and materials necessary for such were given by the Life Saving Brigade.
Surf boards, especially when used amongst such a crowd as was surfing during the holidays, are a most undesirable menace to surfers, beside being one continual menace to the safety of those who do not use them.

1914 'ACCIDENTS AT YAMBA.', Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 - 1954), 1 January, p. 8, viewed 4 June, 2012,

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, January 5, 1914, page 1.

Vigorous Young Organisation Plans "Hawaiian Nights" To Raise Funds

Plans for a clubhouse at Waikikl have been practically completed by the Hui Nalu, the already famous swimming and canoeing organization, of which Duke Kahanamoku, world's champion, is a member.

The clubhouse is to be built a Ainahau Lane, opposite the Moana hotel, and will be comfortable and commodious.
The site will be leased for a long term.

To raise the funds tor the clubhouse, the Hul Nalus are planning two "Hawvaiian Nights" at the opera house and have set the dates tentatively at February 11 and 12.
Definite announcement as to the dates will be made later.

President Rawlins of the Hui Nalu, discussing the building plans, said today:
"The clubhouse will be a roomy structure of the bungalow type, one storey, planned so that the roof may be raised and a second story built if desirable.
It is close to the beach and will give the members of the club an adequate gathering place.

"The Hui Halu has been in existence only a little more than two years and already has won two Pacific coast and one Portola (sic) swimming championships, besides having sent to the last Olympic games the man who won the world's short-distance swimming championship.
The club is progressing fast and quarters are desirable."

The programs planned for the two evening events next month are to be largely of a typical Hawaiian type.
A scene at Waikiki beach will be shown and there will be some excellent singing.
Ernest Kaai has given the services of his singers and musicians and will be of much assistance.
"Dudie" Miller has taken the Hui Nalu quintet in hand and is rehearsing it on special songs and a number of young Hawaiian girls will take part.
A list of patronesses will be given later.

"The Hui Nalu will participate largely in the floral parade and carnival events," said Rawlins today.
"The services of the club are at the disposal of the management and we are anxious to do anything we can to make the carnival a success.
We shall have men in the swimming meet, water carnival in the harbor, pageant on the beach and in the production of 'The Mayor of Tokio.' "

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, January 05, 1914, 2:30 Edition, Image 1

Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

The Sydney Morning Herald
7 January, 1914, page 12.

The "Sydney Mail."-

The visit of the American baseballers is given prominence in this week's "Mail," which contains  also some fine pictures of the swimming at Saturday's championship carnival, also of the Melbourne regatta, and the interstate motor-cycling reliability contest.
A page photograph depicts the thrilling sport of surf-riding at Honolulu, and another represents a charming spot in the Brisbane Botanic Gardens.

1914 'RAILWAY CONTROL.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 7 January, p. 12, viewed 24 September, 2012,

Sydney Mail
7 January 1914, page 26.

Riding the Waves on the Honolulu Beach.
The Waikiki Beach at Honolulu is noted for ihe delightful pastime of surf-board riding which can be enjoyed there.
Our illustration shows very clearly the various stages that have to be gone through before the upright position on the board is attained.
The swimmer lies flat on the board, and paddles with his arms until a fair pace is gained, and the wave is properly carrying its burden.
Then he rises slowly, lifting the body, and assuming a kneeling position, and finally he stands erect.
In this way he is swept along for 400 yards or 500 yards. It is undoubtedly fascinating sport, but would be dangerous for our thickly-crowded beaches.

1914 'Riding the Waves on the Honolulu Beach.', Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), 7 January, p. 26. , viewed 29 Jun 2016,

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, January 14, 1914, page 7.


Comlng- "The Hui Nalu Follies."
That's the name of the Hui Nalu show to be given at the Opera House.

Patronesses for the event were announced today.
They are as follows:
Queen Liliuokalani, Princess Kalanianaole, Mrs. H. G. Smart, Mrs. R. W. Shingle, Mrs. Walter Macfarlane, Mrs. G. C. Beckley, Mrs. Charles T. Colllingworth, Mrs. A. O. M.r Robertson, Mrs. J. D. Dougherty, Mrs; W. H. Campbell, Mrs. Charles Hall, Mrs. Frank Hustace, Sr.

There will be between 60 and 70 people in the company and a dozen or more young ladies will take part in one of the numbers. Ernest Kaai and his glee club will take an active part.
Several distinct novelties are promised in the form of special local scenes and new dances.
Rehersals are now underway at the Moana tenis club quarters.
The object of the show is to raise funds for the new clubhouse that the Hui Nalu will build in Ainahau lane.

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, January 14, 1914, 3:30 Edition, Image 7

Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Ashburton Guardian
New Zealand, Volume XXXIII, Issue 8767, 14 January 1914, page 2.


It only wants a continuance of the present spell of hot weather to bring New Brighton into the forefront as a surfing centre (says the "Press").
During the last week or two the Brighton beach has contained each day larger crowds than were ever seen before as a regular thing, while ihe amount of surf bathing that has been going on is simply astonishing.
Even the Manly beach could not have been more densely crowded than was the New Brighton beach on some of the holidays and week-end intervals.
The use of surf boards to come in on the breakers is becoming more popular every day, and many surfers are now quite proficient in this department of the sport.
To come in without the aid of the board is a much harder task, but the example set by the Australian swimmers last season is bearing fruit, and a fair number of local men can now accomplish the feat.

Ashburton Guardian, Volume XXXIII, Issue 8767, 14 January 1914, Page 2

Poverty Bay Herald
New Zealand, Volume XLI, Issue 13278, 14 January 1914, page 9.


Board-surfing, which is every year gaining in popularity among bathers at our seaside resorts, is an imported pastime.
Its home is in the islands of the Pacific, and nowhere more than at Honolulu, whose famous Waikiki beach may justly be termed "a surfer's paradise."
The. formation of this beach is peculiar.
Coral abounds on the bottom, and, a reef stretches right across the bay about half a mile from the shore.
Inside' the reef the water is quite shallow, so shallow that one can. stand only waist-deep at a distance of 200 yards or so from shore.
It is this shallowness and very gradual slope which give the waves their long, easy, regular roll, and contribute to the pleasure of surf-board riding.
The method of riding used by the surfbathers of Honolulu is described by a Sydney paper thus-:
"About 300 yards out wave is selected, and then, by lying flat on the board with the arms used in paddle fashion, as much impetus as possible is gained before the waves reaches the surfer.
The position is maintained until one is certain that the wave is carrying its burden, when the enjoyment is increased by first .assuming a kneeling position, and then standing erect on the centre of the board.
This is kept up for more than 200 yards, and sometimes those who can balance well stand, on their heads.
A variation of the pastime is canoeing in outriggers or hollowed logs, which are paddled out to the, wave and sent careering along, on its crest at. a great pace in the same manner as the board.
Sharks abound m these, waters, but the natives seem to have not the least fear of them.
They swim about everywhere unconcernedly, and harpooning sharks is one of their favorite occupations.
A carcase is towed out into the deep; water behind a boat, and after hours of watching and waiting, the sharks gather round, and having assured themselves that the bait is not alive, begin to bite at it.
The carcase is .then drawn in close to the boat, and .the attacking shark is skilfully harpooned between the fins and pulled in, the flesh being sold to the Chinese for fowl.
It was Waikiki that produced "Duke" Paoa Kahanamoku, the world's greatest sprint swimmer.
He started his career by winning a 100 yds race in the Honolulu harbor in 55 2-sec, thereby establishing a .world's record, and afterwards secured a place in the United States team for the fifth Olympic games at Stockholm.
Five world's' records have now been placed against his name.
"Duke" is to visit Australia some time this year, is anticipated that the. different swimming conditions in Australian waters will enable him to make even faster times than he has hitherto succeeded m accomplishing.

Poverty Bay Herald, Volume XLI, Issue 13278, 14 January 1914, Page 9.
Colonist, Volume LVI, Issue 13915, 24 January 1914, Page 3.

South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus
Friday 16 January 1914, page 21.

Bulli Shire Council
From Mr. Stirling, Austinmer, complaining of the use of surfing boards and asking to be supplied with printed notices which he would nail up on the beach in conspicuous places
It was decided on the motion of Cr Cotterell, seconded by Cr. .Nicholson; that a complete set of rules , relating to surf bathing be sent to all beach inspectors.

1914 'Bulli Shire Council', South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus (NSW : 1900 - 1954), 16 January, p. 21. , viewed 22 Apr 2016,

Poverty Bay Herald
New Zealand, Volume XLI, Issue 13281, 17 January 1914, page 8.

A new form of aquatic sport m Wellington was seen m the vicinity of the boat harbor at Clyde quay on Thursday evening, and attracted considerable attention.
Outside the boat harbor a man, clad in a bathing costume, was standing on a species of surf board attached by a long rope to a motor boat, which was travelling at a good pace and towing the board over the choppy waves.
The rider appeared to be clutching a strap on the board as he flew through the spray.
To the surprise of the onlookers, the launch suddenly changed, its course at about a right angle.
It was expected that the board would at once be tipped up, but the rider managed to swerve it round just as gracefully as the launch had done

Poverty Bay Herald, Volume XLI, Issue 13281, 17 January 1914, Page 8.

The Maui News.
Wailuku, Maui, January 31, 1914, page 6.

Mid-Pacfic Carnival

(Continued from Page 1.)
3:30 p. m-, Hawaiian spectacle,
"The Wooing of Umi and Piikea," at Waikiki Beach, portraying an old Hawaiian legend, with ancient chants and characteristics of the people of Old Hawaii.
Saturday, February 21
9 a. m., Mid-Pacific swimming meet, Honolulu harbor, Pacific Coast vs. Hawaii.

Chronicling America
The Maui news. (Wailuku, Maui, H.I.) 1900-current, January 31, 1914, Image 6
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Malvern Standard
Victoria, Saturday 31 January 1914, page 5.

 The Surf-Board Riders ofHawaii.
A Sport Which Beats Flying.

There is only one spot where this fascinating sport can be seen and indulged in at its best, says H. J. Shepstone, in the "Wide World Magazine." and that is at Waikiki Beach, not far from Honolulu, the capital ol Hawaii.

Malvern Standard, Victoria, Saturday 31 January 1914, page 5.
1914 'The Surf-Board kiders of Hawaii.', Malvern Standard (Vic. : 1906 - 1931), 31 January, p. 5, viewed 7 September, 2012,

Also reprinted in:
Prahran Chronicle, Victoria, Saturday 31 January 1914 page 5.

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
February 12, 1914, page 5.

Burlesque on the Kilohana Art League Discloses Local Celebtrities in Surprising Actions

It s a corking good show the Hui Nalu actors, actorines, singers, dancers and vaudevillians offer to Honolulu for two nights this week.
Last night the opera house was packed with a crowd of local people and friends, and the crowd had an evening of riotous fun and genuine amusement and entertainment, furnished by the swimming club that has grown from 15 to nearly 200 members and now is after the funds for a clubhouse at Waikiki.

Before the show the wise ones whispered that "Ned" Steel, whose name appears dignifiedly on the program as Edmund H. Steel, had gathered together a collection of stunts that would surprise and delight everyone from the bald-headed row to the last seat up under Mister W. D. Adams' eaves, and after the show the audience agreed with the wise ones.
Steel, director of the show, assisted by a hard working staff and as loyal a set of club members and their friends as ever
 pulled together, put on individual acts, songs, dances, choruses and many other things in rapid succession and with fine effect.

Some of the fun was sharp- Oh, that burlesque on the Kilohana Art League!
But it was all harmless and even some of the victims who happened to be in the house entered into the spirit of it and had as good a  time as anybody seeing themselves walking around the stage grotesquely.

Right from the start the show went well.
The curtain showed a Waikiki beach scene with Diamond Head in the background, the Moana hotel, pier and bathhouse, the hau-tree over the benches, and Tommy J. K. Evans showing a guitar how to make music.

Then on came the Hui Nalu boys just as they do out at the beach, laughing, playing jokes on each other- and here was even "Tough Bill" smearing himself and comrades with sand.
The club-members warble a few songs, our own champion Duke Kahanamoku and others of the Hui Nalus, dressed- or undressed- in swimming suits, dive right off the stage into a mythical ocean, and even "Louie" in the bathhouse goes through his regular voice-swallowing act, off stage.

Bill Rawlins, president of the club now disclosed as a real live actor, Ned  Steel, Duke, Charley Stillman, Thomas P. W. Gray, "Dude" Miller, Harvey Chilton and others then begin to talk of raising funds for a club house and decide to give a show.
From that time on the program brings out various features of the show.

Bob Kaawa, who is a member of the champion swimming team, is a fine musician singing and playing several splendid selections, accompanied by a number of his fellow members.
The talented Evans brothers, Thomas, J. Kainau and Francis, give an excellent instrumental trio, guitars and ukulele, and were recalled three times last night.
Watson Ballantyne's song, "We Love You, Hui Nalu", made itself instantly popular.
Some particularly good moving pictures by Bonine lent variety to the show, the first real (sic) showing the pineappie industry on Ohau with some magnificent scenery and the next giving "movies" of the Hui Nalu boys at home canoeing and surfing.
Ernest Kaai was one of the biggest hits of the evening, with difficult and melodious selections on the mandolin and ukulele and was called to respond to several encores.

A cafe scene from "The Vienna Cafe, Atlantic City" was next on the program with a bevy of pretty and handsomely dressed girls and correct young men in evening clothes.
Ernest Kaai  led the group with a song and chorus and a rapid and kaleidoscopic dance in the cafe was staged with great effect, some new "rags" being introduced to the audience.

The Hui Nalu Quintet Club, Jack Newberg, as a Monte Carter Hebrew in parodies of a local brew, and a well-staged "radium dance" followed in quick succession.
The radium dance was given with grotesque pierro figures on a darkened stage and with darkened house, the phosphorescent effect of the costumes being striking and the dance well done.

Two of the most popular numbers of the evening were the dance by Ned Steel and Duke Kahanamoku and the burlesque on the Kilohana Art League.
Steel dances like a prima ballerina, and dressed like an up-to-date chorus lady, and with Duke as the partner, he caught the fancy of the audience at once.
Incidentally Duke showed athletic prowess in other lines besides swimming.

The Kilohana Ait League burlesque was a scream.
The unlucky victims were H. P. Wood, U. S. District Attorney Jeff McCarn, Attorney George Davis, Judge Sanford B. Dole, Former Governor Walter F. Frear, Delegate Kuhio and Monte Carter.
Their impersonators were  well made up.
Robert  Purvis, disguised behind the venerable Dole whiskers, was a really wonderful likeness.
Jeff McCarn's  nose, to be sure, was a trifle red, and he danced with considerable abandon.
Kuhio and his cane his lifelike, even to the princely indolence. and the Frear countenance might have deceived the governor himself.
Monte Carter, well carried out by Jack Newberg, handled the "league" with fine effect and ended with a"chorus girls' contest" in which all got a prize.
"Dole" got a pair of dumbells.
Frear a pair of sissors with some hirsute refetenccs to "making Honolulu beautiful."
Jeff McCain a bottle that bore a suspicious label.
Secretary Wood a milk-bottle.
Then as an encore, the league put on a burlesque of the coming floral parade, each memeber riding in a decorated car, except for Jeff McCarn who bought up the rear banging with religious zeal  a drum which bore the legend "Down with Booze."

It was all excellent fun and never transgressed the bounds of propriety.

The house was decorated with colors of various swimming clubs, the Hui Nalu black and old gold predominating.
In one of the upper boxes the swimmers from the Olympic Club, San Francisco, were guests of the Hui Nalu, the box being decorated with the red and white of the Coast organization, and the Hui An Kai, the local girls' club, had the opposite box.
Paper ribbon and streamers were thrown from these boxes during the cafe dansing scene.

The show will be given again tomorrow night.

Those who took part are:

(Characters named in the order in which they appear.)
Thos. J. K. Evans (discovered).
"Mauna Kea"- Robert Kaawa. Henry Bishaw, Richard Holstein. James Ii, Lang Akana, Francis Evans
Albert Arcia, Harold Lishman, Daniel W. Keaweamahi, John Lishman,
VraAo rrr '.V.'thplm I.ukela K.llloikOu
(; Keaweamahi. Chas. K. Stillman.
"Dude" Milier, David Sherwood, Duke
"h " m,,Ull -m T nav-Hnsi. Ed Karratti, Hiram Kahele, Chas. Keawe,
Henry Kalei.
"Fair Hawaii"- Robert Kaawa and
. Kwo
IlUBlC lKys.
Hawaiian method of playing guitars-
Thos. J. K. Evans, J. Kaniau Evans, Francis Evans.
The Kilohana Art League
Lew O.
,,Bn(l" nn omv' ?niiriki Wat
Baentynp; Thos. P. W. Gray, Alapakl
Smith Robert jrvis Jack Xewburg.
Specialty Music by Alapakl Smith, words by Watson Ballentyne.
"We Love You, Hui Nalu," ensemble.. Words by Watson Ballentyne.
Scene Waikiki beach.
I Tlmo Paromhor 1Ql
Ernest Kaai "Come to the Ball,"
fAll Don Piccadilly.'
Accompanied by Fennello Miles,
lxrna Jarrett, Anna" Harrison, Mellte Williams, Pliedcs Colburn, Helen Col-
Smith )
couleur de Rose Robert Kaawa and
-RaHiiim dano RiVharri HnUtPfn
director, G. R. Marsily; wardrobe mas-
, ,


J R Mosely Cummins. Wm. League!
Kahanamoku. Wm. T. Rawlins. Ed

 niunJ R Mosely Cummins. Wm. League!
 mund Stee, Wiie Kaha.
 namok William. Kanakanui. J. Ka
 n,au K ,Ia p Chilton, J. A.
 WofiehoU8Pf Patrlck o'Sullivan,
 u m. j,uuohau ;Hlo lloydi K K Boydi
,nrHan M.rU K rnrtV

Photographed by R. K. Bonine.
Rits of Hawaiian Favorites by Ernest Kaai and his Quintet Club.

Een Dwlght( 1Iazel Williams,
Pernice Kahanamoku. Eleanor Holt,
charlotte Dowsett. liura Low, Robert
Purvig 0 Macfarlane. J. Kaniau
Evang Lew G Henderson, Francis
Evan8 G Zabriskie. Wave Camp,
Tnos P w Grav Geo Dwlj?ht, Wat
William Desha, David
Medley-Hul Nalu' Quintet Club. '
J A Dancing i8S0h-M. K. B. Rag
Edmund FT. Steel. Duke P. Kahana
mftV fRflr rftmnnMll hv Atonoki

Lrn- Daniel W. Keaweamahi. Harold Lish
maDt Earle E Cook James u Geo
Keaweamahi. E. K. Boyd.
Garccns Jack Newburg. K. L. An
ntv Timp Prpjpnr
i Dirctor. Edmund II. Steel; assistant director, Lew G. Henderson r stage manager.
Ernest N. Parker: musiral
Ernest Parker: master of properties. "DudeII AHlerT advertising manager; Thos. P. W. Gray; business managers, A:ex Mav and Francis Evans; stage carpenter. Wm. Prestidge. ciud. jacK ewDerg. as.

Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, February 12, 1914, 3:30 Edition, Image 5
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

The Register
Adelaide, 14 February, page 13.


Mr. C. Bastard, the proprietor of the City Baths, is a public benefactor from the fact that he has taught thousands of South Australians to swim.
That his ambition to foster the art of swimming has been realized to the extent it has is in no small measure, due to the numerous carnivals promoted by him each year at which he introduces some of the best exponents the world has produced.
A few weeks ago he presented Frank Beaurepaire to the Adelaide public.
His latest acquisition is Alec. Wickham, the well-known South-Sea Islander, who will appear in exhibitions on February- 16, 19, and 23.
Wickham arrived in Adelaide, on Fridav in company with Oscar Dickman, Miss Fraser and her brother Master E. Fraser.
Although he originally hailed, from the Solomon Islands, Wickham's 15 years, in Svdney have served to render him an Australian, of whose prowess the Commonwealth may be proud.
His world records cover 50 yards and 100 yards, and he holds the Australian record for 75 yards.
His chief opponent on Monday night will be Alec Moir, one of South Australia's leading swimmers.

- High Diver -

In addition to his ability as a swimmer, Wickham has distinguished himself as a high diver, and among other exploits, he numbers that of diving from the yard of a vessel, 85 ft. above the water.
Strangely enough, it is an art which he has learnt in Australia.
Speaking on the subject, he mentioned that the natives in the South Sea Islands enter the water feet first, by leaping in with arms outstretched and body doubled up.
They straighten themselves just as the water is reached, and so expert are they that practically no splash whatever is created to mark their immersion.
Wickham will give a display of that branch of natation., which the natives term the honga honga, next Thursday night.

 -The Art of Surfing -

Wickham would say little of his own
career but, as with many men who have won renown, his conversation on his own particular line takes an instructiye turn on many diverse points connected with swimming.
On the subject of surf bathing he made some interesting comments.
The baths, he says have now almost entirely lost their popularity in favour of the more exciting pastime of surfing, and as many as 20,000 people can be seen enjoying themselves on the various beaches.
Questioned on the danger of the practice, he remarked that many people when caught in a under tow attempt to swim against the current, and become exhausted.
If they simply confined their efforts towards keeping afloat their chance of being saved or carried in by the waves would be increased considerably.
In conclusion, chatting on the crawl stroke, Wickham claimed that he introduced that form of swimming into Australia many years ago.
It is a method much, in vogue in his own country, where girls as well as-boys, practised it.
The crawl stroke, it may be mentioned, has now won considerable popularity in Sydney.

1914 'A CHAMPION SWIMMER', The Register (Adelaide, SA : 1901 - 1929), 14 February, p. 13. , viewed 06 Apr 2019,

Sydney Morning Herald
16 February 1914, page 13.


The Dee Why Lifesaving and Surf Club held its first annual carnival on Saturday at Dee Why Beach.
There was in attendance of about 3000.
Nine clubs were represented in the grand parade and march past which was a very creditable display.
Cronulla Club was awarded the prize.

The principal event was the rescue and resuscitation competition for the Gardiner Cup held by the Manly Lifesaving Club but handed to that body to Deewhy for competition.
Five teams entered and Manly Club retained it with 432 (?) points.
The surf relay race was won by North Steyne represented by I. Solomons and L. V. Hind
North Steyne also won the novice surf race and several of the beach events.
Only two competitors- Miss Leatham and Miss Abrahams- started in the ladies surf race.
The latter however gave up before the shore was reached, and had to be rescued.
Another sensational incident occurred in the surf race.
One of the competitors (C. Knight of Deewhy Club) was rescued and brought lo shore in an exhausted state, and several minutes lapsed before animation was restored
Results -
Ladies Surf Race- Miss Leatham (Freshwater) 1, Mrs Abrahams (Brookvale) also started.

The Sun
Sydney, 17 February 1914, page 11.


Mr. Snowy Baker writes to the "Sun" from Honolulu: —
Have just arrived at Honolulu and had the pleasure of a long yarn with the World's champion swimmer, Duke Kananamoku.
Duke is a grand type of physical manhood and an exceedingly nice fellow to yarn with.
He is ultra modest and very difficult to make talk about his own doings as a swimmer.
He is employed as an inspector in the water works at a salary of £15 per month, has a good boss, and can get away for swimming practice.
Everybody knows Duke, who is a hero in the-town.
Honolulu is advertising a big city carnival for Washington's Birthday, February 22.
The posters around the cit, consist of life-size pictures of Kahanamoku; shooting on a surf board.
I was anxious to see him swim, and he kindly consented to go along to the beach and give me an exhibition.
Duke could not be called a pretty swimmer- in fact, one hardly sees more than splash.
He lies well on the top of the water with a good deal of the upper body out, and doesn't swim, but crawls along like a-spider.
As a swimmer, and in build, he somewhat resembles Daniels, the American champion sprinter.
He is looking forward to a trip to Australia, and after the stories told him of our great country is more anxious than ever.
I told Duke that Barry was a "comer,"' and he would want his best form when he paid us a visit.
Kahanamoku asked me to convey his best wishes to Eddie Marks, Cecil Healy, Longworth, and Hardwick, and looks forward to meeting our champions in their own water.

Duke is an ardent motor cyclist.
He was pointed out to me flying along one of the suburban roads.
My, he was flying!
But my car ,was faster and I overhauled him.

1914 'DUKE KAHANAMOKU.', The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), 17 February, p. 11. (FINAL EXTRA EXCLUSIVE CABLES), viewed 09 Apr 2019,

The Garden Island.
Lihue, Kauai, February 24, 1914, page 1.


The Carnival at Honolulu is at an end, the last of the program having-been carried out yesterday.
The crowd of visitors from the Coast was fully up to expectations, while more people from the different islands attended and took part in the Carnival than ever before.
Cn account of a considerable increase in hotel and lodging house room, there was not the overcrowding that had been feared; although it must be stated that the city was taxed to its fullest capacity in this regard.


The swimming events at Honolulu Saturday morning resulted in one great surprise, and that was the defeat of Champion Duke Kahanamoku in the 50-vard -race by Bob Small, of California.
Duke, however, "delivered the goods", in the long distance races, Miss Ruth Stacker won out in the race for women, and Miss LeGros, also of Honolulu, came insecond.

Following were the principal events and the results:
440-yard Duke Kahanamoku (H. N.), first; Lincoln Johnson, (unattached), second; F. Kruger (H.), third.
Time 5 min. 46 2-5 sec.
100-yard D u k e Kahannmoku (H. N.), first; E. R. Small (unattached), second; Geo. Cunha, third.
Time 54 4-5 seconds.
Lowered Hawaiian record by two fifths of a second.
50-yard E. R. Small (unattached), first; Duke Kahanamoku (H.N.), second; Geo. Cunha (H.), third.
Time 23 2-5 sees.
Equals world's record.
880 yard Walter Pomeroy (O C), first; G. Keaweamahi (H. N.) second; Fred B. Arnold (H. NJ), third.
Time: 13 min. 24 sees.
220 yard Duke Kahanamoku (H. N.), first; George Cunha (H.) second; Lincoln Johnson, (Y), third. Time 2 min. 35-15 sec.
50-vard (for women) Ruth Stacker (H. A.), first; Lucille LeGros (U.), second; Miss Lane third.
Time-31 1-5 sec.
1 mile Walter Pomeroy (O), first; George Keaweamahi, (HN.). second; George Bushnell, (H.), third.
Time 26 in in. 49 1-5 sec.
Lowered -Hawaiian record by 55.45 sees.
440-vard relay Hui Nalu team, Hustace, Kaupiko, Holstein and Kahanamoku; first; Healani team, F. Kruger, Wodehouse, H. Kruger and G. Cunha second: Pacific Coast team, McWood, Leary, ociiuitz and Small, third.
Time 4 min. 5 3-5 sees.

The Garden Island. (Lihue, Kauai, H.T.) 1902-current, February 24, 1914, Image 1
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The Sydney Morning Herald
Friday 27 February 1914, page 4.


The Australasian Olympic fund committee held their weekly meeting in Sydney yesterday, Mr. Vicary Hornlmon presiding.

The sub-committee appointed to make preliminary arrangements for an Olympic fancy dress ball, to be held at the Town Hall in May, reported that the Lady Mayoress' has issued invitations to a number of ladies to attend a meeting next Thursday afternoon and go into details on the matter.
It was also
reported that the various athletic bodies had been asked to endeavour to get up sets illustrative of their particulni sport, and to an nounco their intentions before Thursday next

Tho hon. secretary (Mr. W. W. Hill) re- ported to tho committee that tho Manly swim- ming carnival had produced £11 12s 6d for the fund, but owing to tho inclement weather, it wan nor. exnoctod that the cycling carnival

vvculd result In much prout, though the re- turns viere not yot available, "ho Now South Walos Amateur Athletic Association had noti- fied tho secretary that, owing to the heavy less on tho visit of the American athletic team, it was impossible for that body to go 0:1 with tho proposal for holding an Olympic function in March.

To take the place of
this the committee decided that an Olympic swimming carnival should be organised.
Hill and Mr. Cecil Healy will make the necessary arrangements, and the event will be hold on the Parramatta River, near the King's School, so the competitors will be swimming in fresh water, the conditions being similar to those at the Olympic Games. The Manly sporting bodies and the Surf Bathing Association of New South Wales are also considering the question of carrying out fixtures in aid of the fund.

Next week the committee will go thoroughly into tho question of following Victoria's example in forming an Olympic society, whose members will have a badge, and be admitted to all Olympic functions held in the State, on payment of a minimum subscription.
order to arrange a series of benefits for the fund at various picture shows will also be considered next Thursday.

1914 'OLYMPIC FUND.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 27 February, p. 4, viewed 20 December, 2014,

Sunday Times
Sydney, Sunday 1 March 1914, page 14, Illustrated.

Sydney can boast of  possessing several young ladies (notably Miss Amor, of Manly) who can 'shoot' the breakers in the method in vogue here almost as expertly as the best men exponents.
Our waves are of a different formation to those which roll in at Waikiki Beach, Honolulu, and are not suitable for surf-board riding, consequently we are not able to emulate the Hawaiians in their exhilarating pastime of utilising boards to assume a horizontal position whilst dashing shorewards.
To manipulate the surf in this fashion requires the greatest skill and dexterity, and for a long while no white man capable of imitating the natives could be produced, and there are very few in existence to-day.
These facts combine to make the accomplishment of the white girl depicted in the above prctiire all the more extraordinary.
The photo was forwarded by Mr. George Walker.

1914 'ENDLESS PRAYER.', Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 1 March, p. 14, viewed 7 November, 2013,

Evening Post
New Zealand, Volume LXXXVII, Issue 56, 7 March 1914, page 14.

(By "Floater.")

 Mr. Snowy Baker recently wrote to the Sun from Honolulu
"Have just arrived at Honolulu and had the pleasure of a long yarn with the world's champion swimmer, Duke Kahanamoku.
Duke is a grand type of physical manhood and an exceedingly nice fellow to yarn with.
He is ultra modest and very difficult to make talk about his own doings as a swimmer.
He is employed as an inspector in the waterworks at a salary of £15 per month, has a good boss, and can goet away for swimming practice.
Everyody knows Duke, who is a hero in the town.
Honolulu is advertising a big city carnival for Washington's birthday, 22nd February.
The posters around the city consist of life-like pictures of Kahanamoku shooting on a surf board.
I was anxious to see him swim, and he kindly consented to go along to the beach and give me an exhibition.
Duke could not be called a pretty swimmer in fact, one hardly sees more than splash.
He lies well on the top of the water with a good deal of the upper body out and doesn't swim, but crawls along like a spider.
As a swimmer, and in build, he somewhat resembles Daniels, the American champion sprinter.
He is looking forward to a trip to Australia, and after the stories told him of our great country is more anxious than ever.
I told Duke that Barry was a 'comer,' and he would want his best form when he paid us a visit.
Kahanamoku asked me to convey his best wishes to Eddie Marks, Cecil Healy, Longworth, and Hardwick, and looks forward to meeting our champions in their own water.
Duke is an ardent motor-cyclist.
He was pointed out to me flying along one of the suburban roads.
My, he was flying!
But my car was faster, and I overhauled him."

Evening Post, Volume LXXXVII, Issue 56, 7 March 1914, Page 14.

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, March 27, 1914, page 5.


Those who have seen the exhibition handiwork of the eight grade student of Punahou Preparatory school are of the unanimous opinion that it is one of the best ever given.
The variety of articles exhibited is unlimited and there is everything from a relief map of thE Panama canal to a plate full of divinity fudge to be seen by those who take the trouble to walk down into the basement of the building.
Mark Weil's chain was the cause of much comment while Curtis Turner's miniature surf board, "Dartaway," and Oliver Emerson's electric shocking machine were two of the best exhibits.

Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, March 27, 1914, 2:30 Edition, Image 5
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Sunday Times
Sydney, Sunday 5 April 1914, page 15.


The use of surf-boards of the Honolulu Variety has become the rage at Manly of late.
For some years past Tommy Walker has been emulate some of the acrobatic feats of the Hawaiians.
Unfortunately the kind of
waves we get here seldom permit more than a short run or rather no one has succeeded in
negotiating them from any distance out.
Wajker was the first to master the art of assuming the perpendicular.
He has
even advanced to a higher stage of board craft, having performed the more difficult task of balancing himself on his hands, while in transit.
Young McCracken is probably Wal
ker's closest rival at the Village.
But, as
mentioned, there are a host of aspirants in the field, prominent among which is G. H. Wyld, the promising Manly Club swimmer.
He cuts
a fine figure when once he gets properly on his feet.
Miss Amor is the best lady exponent so
far produced as, in the case of the ordinary form of breaker shooting, she makes a very clever showing.
Champion Sprinter Albert
Barry is also exceptionally keen on the pastime.
He has been devoting most of his time
in the surf to practising the latest hobby, and is making good progress.
If the enthusiasm is sustained, personally, I
think it quite likely that the length of run will be gradually increased, until one or other devotee will be able to give an exhibition on a par with what is accomplished at Honolulu.
There is, however, a drawn sword hanging
over the recreation in the shape of attendant risk to other bathers.
Not sufficient care is
being taken to guard against an accident.
have already been some narrow escapes. -
boards are heavy, and with the impetus they
get up, would inflict an injury that, in all probability, would end fatally.
It only needs for
a complaint to be lodged for the authorities to put a stop to it altogether.
would do well to bear this in mind.

1914 'LATEST CRAZE AT MANLY.', Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 5 April, p. 15, viewed 2 September, 2013,

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, April 9, 1914, page 9.


Australian swimmers, and those interested in the sport in the antipodes, are looking forward with keen anticipation to the visit of the Hawaiian swimmers next winter.

When "Snowy" Baker, who is a grand little writer home when on his travels, was in Honolulu, he was much interested in the
swimming situation, and the following letter written by him, appeared in a recent issue of the Sydney Sun:

"Have just arrived at Honolulu and had the pleasure of a long yarn with the world's champion swimmer, Duke Kahanamoku.
Duke is a grand type of physical manhood and an exceedingly nice fellow to yarn with.
He is ultra modest and very difficult to make talk about his own doings as a swimmer.
He is employed as an inspector in the waterworks at a salary of £15 per month, has a good boss, and can goet away for swimming practice.
Everyody knows Duke, who is a hero in the town.
Honolulu is advertising a big city carnival for Washington's birthday, 22nd February.
The posters around the city consist of life-like pictures of Kahanamoku shooting on a surf board.
I was anxious to see him swim, and he kindly consented to go along to the beach and give me an exhibition.
Duke could not be called a pretty swimmer in fact, one hardly sees more than splash.
He lies well on the top of the water with a good deal of the upper body out and doesn't swim, but crawls along like a spider.
As a swimmer, and in build, he somewhat resembles Daniels, the American champion sprinter.
He is looking forward to a trip to Australia, and after the stories told him of our great country is more anxious than ever.
I told Duke that Barry was a 'comer,' and he would want his best form when he paid us a visit.
Kahanamoku asked me to convey his best wishes to Eddie Marks, Cecil Healy, Longworth, and Hardwick, and looks forward to meeting our champions in their own water.
Duke is an ardent motor-cyclist.
He was pointed out to me flying along one of the suburban roads.
My, he was flying!
But my car was faster, and I overhauled him."

W. F. Corbett, the well-known Australian sporting writer, adds to this letter:
I had a letter by yesterday's American mail from a Honolulu friend who promises to keep me "wise" regarding swimming matters there which might concern the world at large or Australian only.
The pith of the communication is:
"Duke Kahanamoku has definitely decided to go to Australia for the 1914-1915 swimming season.
The world's champion had an interview recently with W. W. Hill, secretary of the Australasian Swimming Association, and accepted the invitation to make the trip as the headliner of a team of about six of the best swimmers in Honolulu.
Hill went into all details of the trip with W. Rawlins, president of the Hawaiian branch of the A. A. U., and the Hawaiian official will select six men to leave Honolulu next November to tour the antipodes.
The team will go direct to Sydney, where the first meet will be held.
Other meets will be held at Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, Newcastle and other points in Australia, and possibly Hobart in Tasmania.
After these series of meets the swimmers will go over to New Zealand and compete in meets at Auckland, Wellington, and Dunedin.
On the return trip to Honolulu there will be a meet at the Fiji islands."

Kahanamoku and company are going to spread themselves when they come.
It is good to know that we will be opening our doors to those distinguished visitors at a time when their presence is very much needed.
It is not likely that the whole troupe will be Kahanamoku's class or anvway near his class, consequently their leader is the only one likely to set the standard which may place our swimmers where they were a few years ago, if not beyond that position.
Speed swimming in Australia is retrograding seriously.
Even our schoolboy swimmers as a whole have gone back.

Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, April 09, 1914, 2:30 Edition, Image 9
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Evening News
Sydney, Saturday 11 April 1914, page 10.


Surf boards, both long and short are n(ow) becoming quite a craze.
While it has been
almost a practice at Manly for some years past, to use thls means of riding the waves has not been generally adopted on other beaches.
Now that the winter is creeping in,however,
many of the clubs are taking advantage of the absence of crowds, and going in for  [this] strenuous practice — particularly with the long board or "olo," as the Hawaiians call it.
There are several of these in use at both Coogee and at Maroubra.
The winter weather, with
its westerlies and low-running breakers, should be admirably suited to this fascinating pastime; for, with anything like a fair sea on our coast, it is quite out of the question to use a long board.
Some of t
he board riders at Manly are "[doing] just fine."
They ride with almost Hawaiian deptness, particularly young Walker who is quite the "surf board king."

Cronulla Club has arranged most interesting programme on Monday at Cronulla Beach.
There are seven or
eight competive surf events, with a like number of unique land novelties.
It should be
real picnic day, for the local people have gone to no end of trouble to make the day a success.

At Coogee there has been a lot ot excavating lately, with the result that great heaps of stone and dirt have been deposited about the beach.
The sea has already got most of the dirt awash, which has consquently discoloured the bay greatly.
Many stones, too, have been dislodged, and are now lying about everywhere.
The stones will certainly become covered by
in sand in time, but anything in the nature ot a heavy sea will immediately uncover them again.
It is at present highly dangerous to shoot
ashore anywhere in the vicinity of the southern end.
Directly one nears the shore he is bound
to run foul ot these stones.
It seems rather unfortunate that this should
be so, when we are in the midst of a festive time such as Easter, when many thousands of country people are in town.
At the last meeting of the Coogee Club it
was resolved to forward a latter to the Randwick Council, drawing attention to the present state of things.
The following members of the South Steyne
Club have been granted transfers to the Manly Life-Saving Club:—
L. O. Hankford, A. E. Hutchi
ns, G. H. Bourne, J. B. Brown, C. Turner, B. Thorn.

At last the Surf Association has decided to do something regarding those frightfully boresome rescusitation and rescue work events.
It is go
ing to halt the number to be held during the season to four.
They are to be distributed among
the different districts as follows:—
One for
northern districts (north of Broken Bay), one for South Coast (south of Cronuila), two metropolitan area, Newport to North Head, and South Head to Cronulla.

The following members ot the Wollongong Life-Saving Club have been transferred to the Water Rats Club of the mum district:— L. G. Presdee, J. F. Conolly. W. M. Cameron, T. Turner, E. Homes, B. Mash, W. Stapleton.
Why they call themselves the 'Water Rats' I'm blessed if I know.
It sounds "plaguey,"
doesn't it?

1914 'SURFING.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 11 April, p. 10, viewed 15 August, 2013,

The Garden Island.
Lihue, Kauai, May 5, 1914, page 1.


The Woman's Auxiliary of the Outrigger Club has voted not to amalgamate with the men's organization.
The Garden Island. (Lihue, Kauai, H.T.) 1902-current, May 05, 1914, Image 1
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The Day Book.
Chicago, May 11, 1914, page 10.


Hawaiian Surf Rider Breasting Breakers on Narrow Board,

Honolulu, H. W.
It is improbable that the feat of riding a narrow board down the rapids that surge through the gorge just below the falls
of Niagara cquld he accomplished by anyone.
But if it could be done at all the most likely candidate for the daring and dangerous exhibition would be a native Hawaiian surf

The sea that beats over the coral reef which half-circles the outer limits of the harbor quickly churns itself into a raging, roaring torrent of breakers that sweep inland across the shallower waters of the lagoon.
It is upon the crest of these violent breakers that the surf riders cast their long-pointed boards and, with a grace that never falls to win the admiration of any spectator who may happen to witness the daring performance, stand upright upon the flimsy footings and guide them through the raging sea to the stiller waters that border the shore.

It is one of the most exhilarating and fascinating sports in the world.
The average Hawaiian is a natural water dog.
Almost the first thing a voyager from the United States sees when the steamship enters the harbor is a horde of native boys disporting themselves in the deep water

Page 11

by the channel.
As the ship comes -longside they give exhibitions of diving after coins that are thrown to them by passengers.
No sooner does the piece of money strike the water than the boys disappear, head downward, and after a lively scramble far beneath the surface the lucky contestant rises to the surface1 holding thecoin in his hand as proof of his prowess.

The day book. (Chicago, Ill.) 1911-1917, May 11, 1914, NOON EDITION, Image 10
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The day book. (Chicago, Ill.) 1911-1917, May 11, 1914, NOON EDITION, Image 11
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El Paso Herald
May 16, 1914, HOME EDITION, COMIC SECTION, page 22.

 COMING!       And don't you wish she'd hurry?
     By Nell Brinkley
Copyright. 1914. International News Service.

MY GRACIOUS what a long time 'til June, but she's coming up out of the boil of surf from the green of a summer sea- the girl who means June in New York with her glossy black cap, and the salt-drops on her nose and lashes, her auburn arms and her sleek wet black figure like a seal's- the Bathing Girl!

The Billys are watching the sea for her- with their spy-glasses glued to their eyes- aching for a sight of her- for the bathing girl is real summer time.
Don't you wish she'd hurry? Me I do.
                                                                                                                         NELL BRINKLEY.

El Paso herald. (El Paso, Tex.) 1901-1931, May 16, 1914, HOME EDITION, COMIC SECTION, Image 22
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Nell Brinkley (1886 – 1944) was an American illustrator and comic artist who was sometimes referred to as the "Queen of Comics" during her nearly four-decade career working with New York newspapers and magazines.
She was the creator of the iconic Brinkley Girl, a stylish character who appeared in her comics and became a popular symbol in songs, films and theater.
wikipedia: Nell Brinkley

The Maui News.
Wailuku, Maui, July 4, 1914, pages 5 and 6.

Duke Kahanamoku may tour East with Rawlins, meeting all crack swimmers.
Duke Kahanamoku and party are in good form.
Practicing daily for races on 3rd and 4th.

Page 6
Ayres Braves Surf To Board Mauna Kea

H. M. Ayres, proprietor of Tropic Topics, was the only passenger to board the Mauna Kea at Lahaina, last Monday night, owing to the fact that the breakers were running so high that the ship's officers would not attempt to make a landing.
Ayres was one of about a dozen passengers who wished to take the steamer.
He made arrangements with a Hawaiian boatman, and successfully negotiated the dangerous surf, although he was thoroughly wet in the operation.

The Maui news. (Wailuku, Maui, H.I.) 1900-current, July 04, 1914, Image 5
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The Maui news. (Wailuku, Maui, H.I.) 1900-current, July 04, 1914, Image 6
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The Garden Island.
Lihue, Kauai, July 7, 1914, pages 1 and 8.

The swimming races at San Francisco Saturday resulted as follows:
100 yards, won by Duke Kahanamoku, in 54 1-5; Rathiel, of Chicago, second.
220 yards, also won by Duke Kahanamoku. McGilvary second.
50 yards for women, won by Dolly Mings.
Time 33 1-5.

50 yards, won by Rathiel in 24 1-5; Duke Kahanamoku second, Small third.
All of the contestants came in in a bunch.
Continued on page 8

Page 8

The 440 yards race was won by Langer, establishing a new world's record of 5 22- 5.

The big relay race was won by Chicago, the Healanis getting second and Hui Nalus third places, respectively.
Olympic (San Francisco) took fourth place.
A new American record of 44 3-5 was established by Chicago.

San Francisco.
The swimming meet, which opened last night, was attended by a very large crowd.
The Hawaiian swimmers took six first and six seconds in the semi finals and one final.
The time made all around was regarded as slow.

Langer, of Los Angeles, defeated Duke Kahanamoku in the 880 contest by eight seconds.
His time was eight minutes, 46 seconds.
In the fifty yard race, Duke Kahanamoku came in first; Raphael second.
Time .24.
In the second heat, Small, San Francisco, was first and Lane second, Time, 29.
Third heat-Cunha, first; Holstein, second.
Time .25.
One hundred - yard race: In the first heat Hebner, of Chicago, took first place, with Smith second.
Time .59.
Second heat, Kruger first; Duke Kahanamoku, second.
Time 1.05 2-5.
Third heat, Raphael first; Cunha. second.
Time .55 1-5.
In the 220-yard race Cunha won first place and Boyd second.
Time, 3.04 1 - 5.
Second heat. McGilvary, first; F. Kruger, second.
Time, 2.34 1-5.
Third heat, Duke Kahanamoku, first; Elnie Smith, second.
Time 2.33.

Chronicling America
The Garden Island. (Lihue, Kauai, H.T.) 1902-current, July 07, 1914, Image 1
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The Garden Island. (Lihue, Kauai, H.T.) 1902-current, July 07, 1914, Image 8
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Terang Express
Victoria, Friday 31 July 1914, page 4.

There is ex
cellent fishing round the coast, and the Japanese have a navy of fishing boats.
Surfing is a great pastime, and it is fine watching natives coming in standing on their surf boards.
Takes some
nerve and practice.
Pretty well all other sport is favored, too, and they play tennis at night under electric light.

1914 'AN INTERESTING LETTER.', Terang Express (Vic. : 1914 - 1918), 31 July, p. 4. , viewed 22 Apr 2016,

The Garden Island.
Lihue, Kauai, August 4, 1914, page 1.


A portion of the Outrigger Club and a cottage in the Seaside Hotel grounds were destroyed by fire Saturday night.

The Garden Island. (Lihue, Kauai, H.T.) 1902-current, August 04, 1914, Image 1
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The World's News
Sydney, Saturday 22 August 1914, page 15.

-rider: "I'm almost sure this isn't a bit the way its done in the illustrated papers!"
- "London Punch."


1914 'No title.', The World's News (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 1955), 22 August, p. 15, viewed 7 October, 2014,

Dakota County Herald.
Dakota City, Nebraska, September 10, 1914, page 3.


The Hawaiian Islands are a lotus eaters land, where it is always afternoon and where the call to strenuous work is seldom heard.
They are an ideal place for a vacation, especially in the winter months, when ice and snow hold fast most of the United Suites.
Even to a Callfornlan the climate Is singularly equable, as the mercury seldom drops lower than 55 degrees and in midsummer it rarely climbs above 85 degrees.
To one used to a harsher climate this equitable temperature,with its soft, balmy winds semms very invigorating.
Walking in the middle ofthe day produces profuse persplratlon and energy is much relaxed.
It is a positive effort to walk more than a block or two, and mental work is not pleasant.
After one is acclimated, however, the blood becomes thinner and old residents of Honolulu declare that they can do nearly as much work as on the mainland.

Thoroughly Americanized as they are, these islands present a variety of races that make their future a problem for any thoughtful observer.
While the Hawaiians are a rapidly dying race, the Japanese have leaped into the foremost place in nurabora and have seized all the small manufactures and petty trades and industries that were once controlled by the natives.
With thousands of Chinese, these two people have orientalized many quarters of Honolulu, while they give a peculiar stamp to many of the small towns throughout the island.
Together they form 60 per cent of the population.
These orientals retain their native dress and customs far more than they do in California.
In fact, in passing through many of the villages on the big sugar and pineapple plantations, the visitor is  reminded or the country towns in Japan.
It is the exception in Hawaii when one meets today a native Hawaiian of pure blood.
The best cross is that between the Hawaiian and the Chinese, the oriental blood giving that business ability which the native lacks.
Next to this comes the Japanese and Hawaiian, a blend that produces many beautiful girls.
The energy of the whiteman is greatly impaired by union with the Hawaiian.

The extraodinary cosmopolitanism was shown very cleary at an entertainment given in Honolulu.
It was a variety performance for the benefit of charity, held in the roof garden of tho Alexander Young hotel, and all Honolulu society was out in force.
Girls of great beauty, with complexions like rare porcelain, had the slant eyes of the Mongolian; others had almond eyes and the dusky skin of their mothers; others were dark as southern negroes, with thick lips and bold, rugged features representatives of the native race which is fast disappearing.
And all these people of various races mingled in perfect amity and good will.

In the surf at Honolulu.

It Is curious to observe the absolute breaking down of all race prejudice as seen on the street cars and at all public places and entertainments.
The man who is used to the Jim Crow cars for colored people in all our southern cities will be startled in Honolulu to see a dusky Hawaiian
woman, with her bundles of household purchases, drop down into the seat beside him on any crowded street car of Honolulu, or a Japanese or Chinese share his seat, with no feeling that he is an intruder.
It is this absolute assumption of social equality by what we have come to regard inferior races that gives a shock to the American visitor to Hawaii.
But after the first surprise one is apt to admire this new social equality, which takes no count of race or creed or training, of color of skin or setting of the eyes.

The two most wonderful sights in Honolulu are the work of man.
These are the Aquarium and the Bishop museum.
The first belongs to the city, and, because of the extraordinary variety and coloring of the fishes, it surpasses in interest the great Aquarium at Naples.
The other was founded by Charles Reed Bishop, a wealthy merchant of Honolulu, in memory of his wife, the Princess Pnuahi, who was the great-granddaughter of the ruling chief at the tlme of Captain Cook's visit and a direct descendant of Kamehameha the Great.
The museum is housed in a fine stone building in the center of the Kamehameha school grounds at Kaliki, a suburb of Honolulu.

The Aquarium is located near the famous Waikiki beach and is easily reached by a car ride of about twenty minutes.
The building is unpretentious, and the tanks are not arranged with the art shown in the Naples Aquarium.
What impresses the visitor almost at the outset is the wonderful variety of the fishes and their equally wonderful coloring.
To describe them as they are lays one open to the charge of exaggeration.
Not only are there fish of fiery red, bright blue, light blue, orange and other primary colors but these colors are blended in many variations of stripes and other eccentric marklngs.
Then, too, scores of these fish are marked by queer patches of vivid colors apparently set into the body of the fish.

Others have elongated noses or long streamers of white or yellow that follow them like a pennant.

The Bishop museum can be seen very fairly in two and a half hours, although a second visit will be found profitable.

The location of the building is singularly fine.
From its windows one may look out upon a noble stretch of territory. Mrs. Bishop, after a life of usefulness to her people, left her entire estate to found schools for young Hawaiians.
Amid a fine park at Kaliki are grouped the buildings of the Kamehameha school, where a large number of young boys and girls are educated in the ordinary English branches and in manual training.
The original museum consisted of an entrance hall and three rooms; to this have been added two wings, one for Hawaiian curios and one for Polynesian.
Besides its unique collection of Hawaiian articles that serve to illustrate the old life of the people, the museum is tho richest in the world In Polynesian exhibits.
Much of the pleasure and profit which the tourist gains from the museum is due to the fine arrangement of the exhibits and the admirable casts of Hawaiians made by the director, Dr. William T. Brlgham, who has been in charge of the institution since its foundation.
Doctor Brigham is well known to scientists for his works on the volcanoes of Hawaii.

Though nearly eighty years of age, he is full of energy, and if you are fortunate enough to carry a letter of introduction to him he will not only show you all the treasures of the museum, but he will give you a mass of information about early Hawaii and its people which he has gathered during his fifty years of residence on the islands.
The doctor is violently anti-Japanese, and he is not partial to the native Hawaiian, as he declares little good can be expected of a race whose language has no words for virtue, honor or home.
The nucleus of the museum was the large and priceless collection of mats, calabashes, feather work, tapa and relics that were bequeathed by Mrs. Bishop as the last of the royal line of the Kamohamehas.
To those have been added many treasures given by the late Queen Emmn and fine collections of 9,000 species of shells, of Hawaiian plants, birds and insects and rich exhibits of othnological specimens not only from Hawaii, but from all the principal islands of Polynesia.
The rare treasures of the museum are in the Kahili room.
These are Kahilis or large feather standards used at funerals of royalty, and the famous robe of the first Kamohamoha, made entirely of feathers from the orange and black mamo bird, which is said to bo valued at a million dollars.
These birds, as well as the yellow and black oo, the scariot liwi and others, were protected by stringent decrees, and the feathers
were used exclusively in the making of these royal cloaks and standards.
The rich yellow of the mamo cloak is contrasted with the more common cloaks of the oo bird.
The British museum has a smaller mamo cloak than this, which was given to Queen Victoria.

The Hawaiian hall is rich in articles that illustrate the early life of the people of the islands
Doctor Brigham devised the ingenious plan of taking plaster casts of living Hawaiians who were good types of their race.
Then from these caste were made the figures that now represent the worship and the industries of the people.
Thus for instance, we have natives pounding the taro to make poi, the national dish, and others cutting from stone the pounders used in this work.
Others are shown spinning and weaving and making weapons and fishing tackle.
One of the most striking groups is that of a kahuna, or medicine man praying before a big calabash, in order to draw down a curse upon his enemy.
So superstitious are the natives that even in these days if a man learns that a kahuna is praying for his death he takes leave of his friends settles his estate, turns his face to the wall and gives up the ghost.

Among the valuable specimen's in this room is a unique collection of kapa, or tapa cloth, made from vegetable fiber.
Of all the islanders of the Pacific, these Hawaiians made the finest tapa, and Doctor Brlgham has gathered here wonderful specimens of their skill.
Most of this cloth was made from the paper mulberry, a shrub that was cultivated by all Polynesians
The bark from the lower branches of these trees was stripped off, dried and then laboriously beaten and the fiber welded together into sheets.
The pattern carved on the beater gave figure to the tapa cloth, and the coloring was done by vegetable dyes.
The museum contains also many fine specimens of the old basket work, which has now become extinct.

Perhaps the most interesting exhibits in the Hawaiian hall are the large central cases, one containing an ancient grass house and the others a replica of an ancient sacrificial temple.
The grass houses have well-nigh disappeared from the islands, although over thirty years ago they were universal in the more remote parts of the islands.
This house was found in Kauai, the garden island, and it was evidently made by skilled workmen.
The frame is of timber, with strong rafters, the whole being bound together by tough braid and thatched with pell grass.
The only opening usually provided was the door, although sometimes a small hole was made in one gable.
The door of plank was seldom over three foot high.
A small circle of stones on the ground floor was raised slightly and, covered with fine mats, served as the family bed.
There was no furniture, as the Hawaiian squats on his haunches when working or taking his food.
These houses were wholesome when new, but they soon became musty and vermin-infested.

Surf riding is a sport peculiar to Hawaii, it furnishes more thrills to the minute than any other known sport, with the possible  exception of volplaning (sic) in an aeroplane.
On thoe Waikiki beacch at any hour of the day men may be seen surf riding on boards.
Beginners roll about inshore at the mercy of the waves, which batter them about and throw them up in huddled heaps upon the sand, amid roars of laughter from the onlookers.
In the far distance, tiny flgures with outstrotched arms, like the wings of a bird, fly, hover, float, with perfect poise and grace, upon the crests of green breakers.

Describing his first experience in this sport a writer says:
"Clad in scanty bathing dresses, we venture forth, a party of three, and trust ourselves to the mercy of two brawny, mahogany-colored natives.
The long, narrow canoe is steadied by an outrigger, a slender log hold by curved crosspleces.
As we paddled out, breakers rose like green walls in front of us; thrilling enough, but nothing to the excitement when we turned to come in.
Having got some way out, we waited, paddling gently, for a really big wavo.
Suddenly our black men began to shout wildly, and away we went, a huge wave gathering up behind us, while we fled down its green and gleaming surface amid showers of blinding spray and the shouts of the men, drowned by the hissing of the roaring water.
The steeper grew the wave, the faster fled the canoe.
We were going at racehorse pace, the water whirling in our faces.
It was so thrilling, we forgot to be afraid."

Chronicling America
Dakota County herald. (Dakota City, Neb.) 1891-1965, September 10, 1914, Image 3
Image and text provided by University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
Persistent link:

1. This article, with the accompanying images, was reprinted in several mainland newspapers.
Its appearance in the Dakota County Herald was probably not the first time it was published.
The Kansas City Sun, Kansas City, Montana, September 12, 1914, page 7.
The Tucumcari News and Tucumcari Times, Tucumcari, New Mexico, October 1, 1914, page 7.
2. volplaning- To glide toward the earth in an airplane with the engine cut off.
3. All the immages are cropped.
4. Photograph 1: In the surf at Honolulu, The white costumes worn by three surfers are said to indicate memebers of the Hui Nalu.
5. Photograph 2: The Swift Rush to the to Shore, by A. R. Gurrey Jr. was published in his The Surf Riders of Hawaii, circa 1911-1914.

The Washington Times.
Washington, D.C., October 26, 1914, page 10.
Where Men Ride Waves

I have watched the natives play at most every known outdoor game, golf in Scotland, polo in India, lacrosse in Canada, and baseball on the Polo Grounds in New York, but I never saw anything in the way of athletic sport that quite equaled the surl riding in Hawaii.
I mean in the absoslute abandon and boyish spirit with which the players entered into the game.

Of course, the Hawaiian are almost amphibious, spending a larg part of the time in the water almost from infancy, and every little boy and girl have a surf-riding plank, and they never seem to tire of the sport.
I took the photograph, from which this picture was made, on the beach near Honolulu, where some 100 or more young men and maidens were sporting in surf that would have nearly beaten the life out of one of our own water men.

The Washington times. (Washington [D.C.]) 1902-1939, October 26, 1914, HOME EDITION, Image 10
Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC
Persistent link:
The unknown artist has probably exaggerated the nose lift on the surfboard.

Riding the Waves.

Sydney, Wednesday 25 November 1914, page 1.
Kahanamoku World's Champion Swimmer is Coming

By Cecil Healy

The uncertainty that began to accumulate concerning Kahanamouku's prospective visit, to Australia this Summer, as a result of no replies having been received to repeated cables, were dispelled by a telegraphic message- which came to hand on Thursday last.
The hon. secretary of the Australian Union (Mr. W. W. Hill) was therein, advised that the celebrated Hawaiian and party intended catching the
steamer that is due to leave Honolulu or the 30th. Iast.
The welcome tidings rapidly circulated amongst followers of the sport in the city, and at the Sports Club, where officials .mostly do congregate during the lunch hour, great elation was manifested.
The tourists will arrive in Sydney earlier than was originally planned.
But an altera-^ tlbn to' tHe tlme-ta,ble, 'as' at flrpt proposed, was unavoidable, owing to tho Union Company, by which line arrangements had been mado for t^e visitors to; travel, having, abandoned Hono lulu as a port of call for its steamers for the' present. The conjecture that Kahanamouku was away on 'a trip to America now transpires, to be the -correct explanation of Mr. Hill's several communications remaining for so longi unanswered. This Is confirmed by tho Bast Sydney Club's him. .handicapper, :Mr.- I. Cantor, who: returned to ; Sydney by the 'Sonoma last week. Mr. Cantor states ; thai the 'Duke's' projected trip to Australia was under discus Slo'n in the' San Francisco. Presa' at' ttiqtUttg.hSj

took his- departure. On arrival at Honolulu he found : that much prominence was being given the matter in the newspapers there, lengthy extracts from Mr. Hill's letters on the subject being published. That being so, It seems rather extraordinary that we were al lowed to: remain in Ignorance of Kahanamouku's absence. As it ? is, the expense Incurred througn unnecessary cables amounts to any thlng but an Insignificant item; ' ?

Kahanamouku,. I . understand, has , intimated .his .willingness to compete up to 440yds In Australia,' The general Impression at Stock-, hqlm was that, for recognised distances beyond 100 metres hiB capabilities did not warrant the. designation of marvellous. No one of the vast crowds that witnessed ..him perform, however, den-ed that that term could bo appropriately ejnployed In reference to his merits as a sprinter. But it must be borne in mind that up. to tho time of the Olympic Games, Kahana mouku, comparatively Bpeaklng,. had had little racing; experience. One did not need to be assured on that point. It could be easily de tected in his general bearing. His movements oa the starting-board were casual,-, and ho portrayed no semblance of the finesse that do notes - the - practised band. This characteristic was in marked contrast to that of the cither memb'er.s' of ' the ' 'American team, who had brought the subtleties of competition down to' a.flaft^ttrV.^----.--, ? 7'' r~'.':'r'r::^ ? ? ' ? ...

I am not aware what time the Ihike actually spent in negotiating the 200-metre, course In the great teams' contest) but he displayed ex tremely bad 'judgment; and It iwas apparent, had he been properly coached; he would . have required' fewer seconds by . several . to accom plish; the, allotted task. .... Since . his sensational exploits In Sweden In 1912, which firmly established his claim to the title of undisputed' champion 'sprint-distance

swimmer of the world, Kahanamouku has de veloped his 'staying powers, and has succeeded In demonstrating his prowcBS in ' America at any distance up to half a mile. He has given further evidence of possessing remarkable stamina by competing in four or five events, ranging from BOydri to 880yds, out of a carnival programme, and: in each instance registering an exceptionally fast performance. As regards the prospects of our exponents op posed to thia redoubtable performer, I cannot persuade myself that any one is speedy enough' to seriously challenge him, say,, from 60yds to 110yds. Either Solomons or Barry may fully: extend him for 60yds. A dash over .a course of this length would, no doubt, provide an ox citing spectacle. I anticipate that ' the Duko will be well in front at the end of a 100yds race. I think there is every likelihood of the conditions here proving very much to his liking, and therefore consider the lowering of one oM his world's records In 'Sydney a probable con ^lnswcy, , If :ws Jaift Bftrr^R ^ugtrjsOtoA MOTflaJ

record and ; place '. it alongside Kahanamouku's International best of 54 3-5sec,. it shows a mar gin of 2sec in the latter's favor. This supe riority is pronounced enough on ' paper, but I am afraid the gap will be. a bigger one than actual figures indicate when .they meet for the reason that Barry has hitherto faiied to do him aelf full justice : in ? a championship. At least we must assume so,' from the -fact that although he was hard put to it to win his honors, he

eccupied a second 'to a second and a half more than he had been, consistently covering the distance in in prior' handicaps. ' [ Kahanamouku's times, on the other hand, have been- made in scratch . events, and the chances are they more closely -represont hi» average- raolng standard. liongworth can bo counted upon to dispute every' ikich' of the journey when he tries con clusip'ns; with the- famous visitor, over 220yds; He has. shown a tendency to- rise above himself when- the issue is important- and the odds 'against' him. Taking his form 'at present as a guide, indications are that ho will later on be as good,- if not better, than wo have ever known, him to-be-.- .For instance, in a trial spin this woek ho' disposed of 22Qyds 'under 2min 32sec; which' mar.ks an advanced . stage ,in fitness to what ia .usually the case-.with.hlmat this eajly period of tho season. I look to -LongworUivto emerge ? victorious from his encounter with: the' Dtikfl'oVer'.the- quarter-mile','. but' I fancy the Hawaiian will be the.;flr^t,.to complete the fur loi»,;. ? --.? '?????: ? -^-:' ?-?;-?-, -r—r-^-/. ;

Sydney, Wednesday 25 November 1914, page 13.
There is nothing like the enthusiasm of youth, and as Kahanamouku is bound to vividly impress school children, the writer agrees with Mr. Hill in thinking that to afford them an opportunity of seeing him perform would, apart from the educational benefits likely to accrue from such procedure, prove an effective advertising medium for the subsequent carnivals, as the youngsters could be depended, upon to arouse a desire on the part of their parents to witness him in competition.
And for much the same reason I am of the opinion that the Association might, with benefit to itself, favorably entertain the invitation of the North Steyne Surf Club for him to be permitted to give a display of surf-board shooting, for which he is equally famous, at its carnival, to take place about the middle of December.

1914 'Kahanamouku, World's Champion Swimmer is Coming.', Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), 25 November, p. 1, viewed 27 August, 2014,

1914 'SWIMMING.', Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), 25 November, p. 13, viewed 7 November, 2013,

Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 2 December 1914, page 6.


The large entry for the association's patriotic handicap on Saturday necessitated seventeen heats, even though more than thirty entrants had previously notified their intention of not starting.
The result showed that ii. M'Ghlo (Sydney) had been very liberally treated by the handicapper.
He has only competed in two races this season, and has won both, and his rapid improvement foretells greater achievements in the future.
M'Ghie presented the amount of the first prize to the association's patriotic fund.
The afternoon, therefore, showed a profit to the fund of  £10 entry fees and £2 10s, the donation of first prize, while the trophies, totalling £5 3s, were presented by Mr. James Taylor, president of the association.
The swimming generally was remarkable for the fact that the trudgeon stroke was only nei-n iB «bout tbrojp Instancif, wbj__e Ljie number o, exponents of the "Kahanamoku" kick were numerous.
Some of the handicap men gave the back-markers surprises, and it was not unusual for the scratch man's time to be beaten by swimmers to whom he was conceding a start.
A. W. Barry was tho speediest performer with 24 4-5s. ,

The Sydney, Manly, and Woolwich clubs held events on Saturday afternoon, but the majority of the organisations postponed their fixtures.
The premiers' furlong handicap for the W. W. Hill cup provided some excellent racing, in which handicapper Barry, nicely gauged the competitors.
The fine showing of the sprint champion, together with Thomas, Lovy, and Duff, added interest to the race, the final going to the last named after a most spirited contest.
Manly carried out a popular race relay handicap, the entry fees of which are to be handed to the Association's Patriotic Fund.

The programmes for the three-days State championship carnival on January 2, 6, and 9 have been issued.
The 300 yards and haft mile championships will be contested the first day,  440 yards (free style), and 220 yards breast stroke at the second meeting, and the 100 yards teams race, 220 yards, and diving at the final gala.
Several diving competitions from the high and low spring-boards and high tower, and intérclub handicaps, enter for all classes of swimmers.
The occasion will provide the first appearance of D. P. Kahanamoku, and the council of the association ís leaving no stone unturned in arranging for what is expected to bo the greatest day in the history of the sport in this country.
A paid assistant organiser is to be employed, under the instructions of  the executive, several members of which have had wide experience in promoting such functions.
The members of the association have been invited to send suggestions in to headquarters for consideration.
The scheme includes some new features for swimming carnivals, while the comfort of the spectator is to be studied in every possible way.
With that end in view- the City Council has been approached in regard to increased seating accommodation, a better carriage approach to the entrance, and the lowering of the raill for the gallery, which is rather awkwardly situated for front-row patrons.
A special free display is to be given to school children during Kahanamoku's visit, and already the patronage of many prominent citizens is assured.

Besides appearing in the early January functions, the famous visitor will also show at various other centres after his return from Brisbane.
However, the three occasions mentioned will be his last appearances at the Domain Baths.
An arrangement is being completed by which opportunity will be given to surf patrons to view his work with the board on our ocean beaches.
It is proposed that he should appear at Newcastle, Goulburn, Forbes, "Parramatta, and Drummoyne.

Mr. F. Cummins, selector of the Metropolitan District Harris Cup team, notifies that a test race will be hold al the Domain Baths. Clubs eligible to send representatives are Sydney, Y.M.C.A., Palace Emporium.

The Referee
Wednesday  2 December 1914, page 11.

(By Cecil Healy)
Kahanamoku and the Dominion.

The New Zealand Association has arranged a tour of the Dominion for Duke Kahanamouku.
Definite assurances to that effect have been cabled (to) Mr. W. W. HllI, the hon. secretary of Australian Union.
It was also advised in this message that the required guantees had been forwarded per mail.
The financial responsabilities of New South Wales and Queensland will, of cause, be considerably lightened in consequence of the itinerary being made to embrace Maori-land.
This in itself would be cause enough to rejoice.
But I think we should be even more delighted to know that the sport in that part of the world will stand the same excellent chance of being advanced in popularity and prestige as it will here.
For the same reason it cannot but occasion us sincere regret to meditate upon the disappointing attitude so far taken up by the administrators of the sport in Victoria and South Australia as regards this unique opportunity, particularly in the case of the former State, for raising organised swimming from the slough of despond into which it has sunk in the course of the last year or two.

The experience they have gone through down south, no doubt, was calculated to damp enthusiasm.
When it is remembered; however, that Queensland and New South Wales conjointly agreed to reduce the liabilities involved to a minimum, one cannot help being impressed with the fact that the negotiations have revealed, on the part of the controlling officials, a more than justified lack of enterprise and pluck.
Presuming, for the sake of argumment, their pessimistic estimation of the celebrated Hawaiian's ability to arouse interest, say, only sufficient to enable them to partially refill their depleted exchequer, is not an exaggeration of the position of affairs, it is difficult to imagine how it wijj ever be possible for them to liquidate their debts.
It is, at any rate, comforting to be aware that hope has not yet been abandoned that some means will be found of ensuring Kahanamoku's appearance in Melbourne and Adelaide.


Our thoughts have been so much occupied with the "Duke" that it has quite escaped attention that provision has been made for him to be accompanied by, as the stipulation reads, "a swimming companion," in addition to a manager.
This role is almost certain to be filled by another Hawaiian, who, it is somewhat of a relief to know, does not lay claim to any such fearsome and difficult-to-be-pronounced surname as his famous fellow-countryman.
He is a performer of some repute, and his name is Cunha.
He has made a trip or two to America as one of the Duke's entourage, and has distinguished himself by finishing second to his compatriot in numerous events.
His speediest effort in public over the hundred appears to be 57sec, and he consistently swims 50yds in the vicinity of 25sec.
Cunha, like the Duke, is a natural swimmer, and it therefore goes without saying he will be thoroughly at home under our open-water conditions.
Although, as I have already stated, I believe Longworth will be seen to the very best advantage from 220yds onwards, I do not expect that either he or Barry will break 58sec in the race for the hundred yards premiership.
Longworth has a championship swim of 56 4-5sec to his credit, but he was sprinting exceptionally well that year.

Albert Barry, the present holder of both State and Australasian titles and Commonwealth record (56 3-5sec) , has never yet bettered the figures quoted in an actual struggle for supremacy.
A two-seconds-less-than-the- minute pertormance has mostly been what was demanded to win the honors.
That being so, I am prepared to maintain that the probability is Cunha will be runner-up in the contests over sprint distances.
Cunha should be especially useful for exhibition purposes at places where the Duke performs and there is no local talent available capable of making any sort of showing against him.

Wednesday  2 December 1914, page 16.
Duke, the Human Fish
(By Cecil Healy.)

Duke Kahanamouku, the Olympic champlot swimmer, who is shortly to tour Australia, having left Honolulu on Monday, is a draftsman by occupation, being connected with the Hawaiian - public service.
His extraordinary,
skill as an exponent of the old-established pastime of surf-board riding made him a well known Honolulu identity, long before he bad an opportunity of demonstrating his pre-eminence as a speed swimmer.

Surfers in this part ot
the world are looking forward to his visit to settle the much-debated question as to whether the waves that roll in on our shores are suitable for the same purpose.
 'The Duke,' as' he is, commonly addressd has an extremely friendly disposition and modest bearing, which never fails to earn him, to a marked degree, the goodwill of those with whom he comes in contact or appears before.
Mr. W. T. Rawlins, the sporting enthuslast who is acting as Kahanamouku's manager on this trip, as he has on several other
sions, is a Honolulu attorney.
It was mainly
through Mr.Rawlin s' efforts that the now celebrated 'Duke' was given the chance to distinguish himself abroad.
In fact, to him is due
the fact that swimming has been placed on an organised, basis at the famous Hawaiian tourist resort.


1914 'SWIMMING.', Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), 2 December, p. 11, viewed 27 August, 2014,

1914 'Duke, the Human Fish.', Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), 2 December, p. 16, viewed 27 August, 2014,

The Referee
9 December 1914, page 1.

Kahanamoku, World's Swimmer
Expected in Sydney Next Week : By CECIL HEALY

Before our next issue appears the ship conveying Duke Paoa Kahanamoku and travelling companion is expexted to enter Sydney Heads.
The prospective visit of the celebrated Hawaiian has been the chief topic of discussion amongst swimmers for months past.
During the course of negotiations followers of the sport were confused  by successive conflicting and doubtful situations.
Great was their relief, therefore, when it was known definitely that he would be leaving Honolulu on the 30th.
Their chagrin immediately changed into an all-engrossing curiousity, and speculation as to what this natatorial Paladin is really like has since been aggitating their thoughts.
As the due date of his arrival (Monday next) draws nigh, so does the excited state of enthusiasts' feelings become more apparent.

The circumstances vividly recall Stockholm, and the perturbations members of the Olympic team underwent as the s.s. Finland, with the "Duke" and other American representatives on board, hurried in the direction of that port.
We knew, instinctively or otherwise, that Kahanamoku was the individual we had most cause to fear.
A name is not supposed to be of any significance, but we were not then familiar with the Hawaiian nomenclature and I rather think this was a factor in keeping him in our dread as an opponent.
It had been rumored time and again that the Finland had reached her destination, and we began to greet such anouncements with the same contempt as war scares nowdays.
But I recollect one or other of our party one afternoon suddenly bursting into the room with the startling infirmation, "He's here! I've seen him!"
There was no necessity for any further explanation as to whom the reference applied.
Where we were staying was only a short distance from the "Swim Gladeon", as it was called, and when our informant told us the Duke was still in the water when he left, we immediately rushed off in hopes of catching a glimpse of him.
He was standing on the side of the enclosure just about to take a plunge.
The first thought that occured to me, after I caught sight of him, was that he was not as pleasant-featured a man as Alick Wickham, nor was there anything prepossessing about his physique.
He was tall and somewhat lanky in build.
No sooner had he entered the water, however, than we were spellbound with admiration of the fish-like rapidity with which he cleaved the element.
He worked his feet - which we had not failed to observe were unusually large - after the style of propellers.
The disturbance made by his leg movement increased the likeness.
When we came to study his action more critically we noticed he placed his arms in rather an unattractive way.
But this imperfect was forgotten, almost as soon as noted, because we were unconiously impressed with the fact that in this instance, as regards any aesthetic flaw it might be possible to detect in his stroke, it was a case of handsome is that handsome does.


On closer aquaintance we found the Duke, as we soon began to to term him, a very friendly man.
He was particualy obliging in the matter of giving exhibitions for our special edification or illustrating any feature of his stroke.
He speaks English well, with American mannerisms of a mild description.
One of the first things we were anxious to find out was whether the title "Duke" was an aristocratic appendage, or merely a term of endearment.
We discovered he had not inherited the distinction, but that his pals had conferred it upon him, probably because they considered him a prince of good fellows.

Kahanamoku quickly installed himself a general favorite.
This reputation was confirmed as the competition progressed.
After the first couple of rounds of the 100 metres, it was realised the result was a forgone conclusion, and his fame was firmly established.
Although he was the cynosure of all eyes, and was attracting far more attention than any of the great exponents who were displaying their prowess there, his notoriety never had the slightest effect on the Duke's deportment, his demeanor being invariably modest and unconcerned.

A Mr. Darnell, of London, a liberal donor to the Royal Life-Saving Society, who came across with Mr. William Henry, carried away by wonderment of the marevellously fast performances the Duke was registering, and as an incentive for him to strive to the full extent of his powers offered to present kahanamoku with a 25-guinea cup in the event of him touching 60sec for the said distance.
That the suggestion was not preposterous was shown by his having covered the course at Hamburg, a few days subsequent to the Games, in 61 3-5sec, which now consitutes the existing world record.
Sixty-two three-fifths was acually the closest he got to the mark at Stockholm.

The task set for him by Mr. Darnell was responsible for the Duke swimming a badly-judged race in the final, which enabled me to get much nearer to him at the finish than would have otherwise happened.
I overheard the manager of the American team, Mr. Otto Wahlde, remark to Kahanamoku, on the way to the post:
"Now, Duke, this is the last chance you've got for the Englishman's trophy."
As a result of this admonition, no doubt, the Hawaiian started off at a terrific pace.
He shot away from the rest of us like a hydroplane.
I saw a streak of foam disappearing over my horizon.
That was enough.
I concentrated my worries elsewhere.
But after the motorist had traversed about 90yds he ran short of petrol, and his form loomed up again in my vision.
This occurrence simply electrified me, and minimised my own impending tiredness.

There was another incident that that occupies a conspicuous niche in my memory of what took place on that historical occasion.
It was enacted on the starting platform.
The King and Queen of Sweden and other members of the Royal family were in attendance.
The sale of tickets had been stopped by the police.
Every available inch of space was filled by by the expectant crowd.
As can be imagined, the moment was one of intense excitement.
We had been allotted our stations, and the spectators duly advised of our identity and the countries we represented.
Just as we were about to assume a crouching attitude, Bretting, the German representative, left his post, at the opposite end of the line to where Kahanamoku and myself were placed.
Not a a few of his countrymen, it might be mentioned, had unbounded confidence in his ability to seriously dispute the issue with the Hawaiian.
Bretting walked straight up to the Duke, shook hands with him, turned to me and did likewise (he had picked up the crawl from seeing me swim in Hamburg six years previously), and, retraced his steps.
I had not yet recovered from my astonishment at this proceedure when the Duke's voice broke in:
"Say, Healy, he must think he is going to deliver the goods."
The comment struck me at the time as being immensely funny, and an involuntary peal of laughter escaped me before I collected my wits sufficiently to make the rejoiner:
"Then blessed is he who expecteth nothing."

Sydney Morning Herald
9 December 1914, page 6.


Mr. W. W. W. Hill, hon. secretary of the Australian Swimming Union, has received a cable from Mr W.T. Rawlins, president of the Hawaiian Amateur Athletic Union, stating that Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, Francis Evans and George Cunha left on Honolulu on the Ventura on November 30.
Francis Evans is evidently the manager of the party, and has taken Mr Rawlin's place as it was expected that the enthusiasts had done most in the development of Kahanamoku would come in charge of the team.
George Cunha is also famous as sprint swimmer and has secured many seconds to his companion.
He has covered the hundred yards in 57 seconds and the 50 yards in 24 seconds, and it is quite possible that both first and second place may go to the visitors in the hundred yards championship.

Evening News
Sydney, Monday 14 December 1914, page 5.


Ever since Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, the Hawaiian swimmer, startled the world by his wonderful performances at the Olympic Games at Stockholm in 1912, there has been a great desire among Sydney enthusiasts to see him in action.
That want is to be satisfied, for the
celebrated sprinter arrived at Sydney this afternoon by the Ventura and early next month he will compete at championship carnivals, to be held at the Domain Baths.

With Kahanamoku. there arrived Francis Evans, his manager, and George Cunha, another speedy swimmer.
All three had a hearty
welcome on the whart at Miller's Point, a big gathering of sporting men having assembled there.

The world's sprint champion swimmer is a well set up young man and a typical islander in his manners.
He is a pure-brooded Hawaiian,
and his home is in Honolulu.
In addition to
being a notable swimmer, he is, like all Ha rwallane, an accomplished surf-shooter, and in this respect there is also a treat in store for those who visit the beaches.
World's records up
to 100 metres are held by Duke- which, by the way is part of his name, and does not signify a title, as some have imagined.
time for the distance mentioned is 1min 2 3/5 sec and it was established at Stockholm in July, two years ago.
In the same month last
year, he lowered Daniels' record for 100 yards from 55 3/5 sec to 64 3/5 sec.
At one time. it
was thought impossible for Daniels' reoord to be beaten and it stood the test for six years, but the Hawaiian succeeded.
That his arrival
in Sydney should, therefore, have created tremendous enthusiasm was not surprising.
it is likely he will have the same warm welcome when he visits Queensland, New Zealand, and other places in the programme mapped out for him by Mr. W. W. Hill, the secretary ol the Australian Swimming Union.

An 'Evening News' representative spoke to Ka
hanamoku on board the steamer, but the visitor was not in a talking mood.

The party will be officially welcomed by the
N.S.W. Amateur Swimming Association at the Hotel Australia, Castlreagh-street, Sydney, this evening.

1914 'LATE SPORTING.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 14 December, p. 5, viewed 11 December, 2014,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Monday 14 December 1914, page 10.

An exciting incident occurred at the Light
Horse Camp at Holdsworthy, Liverpool, on Saturday afternoon last, when three cinemato-graph photographers were in the line of charge by a troop of cavalry.
At the time
they appeared to be in danger of serious Injury, but escaped with a few scratches and bruises.

Messrs. L. Percival, W. Sully, and R. J. Dexter were despatched to Liverpool on Saturday by Australian Films, Ltd., for the purpose (under an arrangement with the Department of Defence) of taking pictures of the Light Horsemen at manoeuvres.
The men took
up a position behind a barricade of bags and boxes, about 4ft in length, where they fixed the camera.

The chief feature of the day was to be a cavalry charge.
It was decided that the
horses should charge straight for the camera, and as they neared the camera stand they were to diverge to the right and left and pass by.

At the critical moment two of the horses failed to turn In time, and they dashed into the midst of the little party.
The men tried
to avoid the oncoming horses, but Percival received Injuries to his leg and a slight wound from a bayonet in the head.
The other
men were thrown to the ground, but escaped without any serious Injury.

Although the camera was smashed to pieces, the film was not damaged.

1914 'PHOTOGRAPHER INJURED.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 14 December, p. 10, viewed 31 December, 2014,


The Sydney Morning Herald
Tuesday 15 December 1914, page 1.
, the world's champion swimme
r over 100 metres, arrived from Honolulu by the R. M. S. Ventura.
He will take part in the State championships in the Domain Baths.

1914 'SUMMARY.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 15 December, p. 1, viewed 11 December, 2014,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Tuesday 15 December 1914, page 4.


Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, the world's champion swimmer over 100 metres arrived here from Honolulu by the R.M.S. Ventura yesterday.
He was accompanied by Mr. Francis Evans as manager, and Mr. George Cunha, an American resident of Honolulu, who is also a splendid performer in the water.

Kahanamoku, who is a native of Honolulu,  is 26 years of age.
He is a splendid specimen of manhood standing, 6ft 1in. and weighing 12st 8lb.
He is the undoubted sprint champion of the world.
At the Olympic Games at Stockhom in 1912 he won the 100 metres championship in 61 3-5s establishing a world's record that has never since been equalled.
Australia's best time for a similar distance is 64 4-5s.
Kahanamoku, though a sprinter, swims all distances up to 440 yards.
In his stroke, his arm work is similar to that in Austialia, but his "kick" or "foot- work" differs from ours.
He has a special "kick" of his own ; one that has won him renown, and has been called "the Kahanamoku kick."
The feet revolve like the blades of a steamer's propellor, and the champion gets up wonderful speed. In fact, he has been called "the flash," for he streaks through the water over the shorter distances at a tremendous pace.

Kahanamoku has arrived here to take part in the State championships on January 2,  6, and 9 next, in the Domain baths, when among his opponents will be Longworth and Barry, two Sydney swimmers who have already astonished Australasia.
Both have splendid records, and by beating them Kahanamoku will have beaten our best.
After the Sydney swimming carnival, the champion goes to Queensland, where he will appear at several towns.
Then he returns to Sydney, and will give a second display.
On this occasion the Swimming Union will probably in arrange for a surf display, when the champion will be seen on the surf-board.
Matters in this direction have not yet been finally arranged.
Then the champion will proceed to the Dominion.
Victoria, on the score of expense, has declined a visit.
Duke Kahanamoku has arrived here early, so as to acclimatise himself, and thoroughly train for the championships.
He will make no public appearance nor take part in any events, until January 2, when he will be seen at his best.

George Cunha is credited with 57s for 100 yards, our best being but two-fifths faster.
Any performer who can do this will always be a dangerous opponent in the water.
Yesterday afternoon a large gathering met at the Hotel Australia to give the visitors a hearty welcome. Mr. J. Taylor, president of the union, presided.
In proposing the health of the visitors, the chairman said Kahanamoku was the first Olympic champion to visit our shores.
The association for many years had endeavoured to bring to Australia champions of other countries to measure blades, as it were, with our own swimmers in our own water, and under our own conditions.

Though they had sent teams to the Olympic Games, and also to contest the English championships, it had remained to Kahanamoku to be the first champion to come here and measure his strength with our champions.
He expressed the hope that the visitors' stay would be a pleasurable one.
They could rest assured of fair-play in all   their contests, and he felt sure they would get the same treatment from the champion.
Mr. H. Y. Braddon said it was a good thing for these events to take place.
Because of the terrible struggles they were engaged in, there had been an inclination to put off such events, but they all meant work for someone or another, and personally, he thought it a good thing to hold them.
Mr. C. W. Oakes also spoke.
Mr. Evans conveyed the best wishes of the Hawaiian swimmers to the Australians for their kindly invitation.
Their reception had been only such as befitted the greatest sport-loving country of the world.
When their visit was over, it would be said the best man had won.
Duke Kahanamoku said he had been looking forward to this visit for the last two or three years.
He was glad to see many faces he had seen at the Olympic Games at Stockholm.
He would do his best to win ; that was all be could do.
Mr. Cunha also replied.

Evening News
Sydney, Tuesday 15 December 1914, page 5.


There was a big gathering at the Hotel Australia, Castlereagh-street, Sydney, on Monday evening when Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, the famous Hawaiian swimmer; George CunHa, another speedy swimmer, and their manager, Frank Evans, were officially welcomed by the New South Wales Amateur Swimming Association.
Mr. James Taylor, who presided, said
Kahanamoku was the first Olympic champion to visit Sydney, although the officials had endeavored on many occasions to bring champions from England and elsewhere, as a return for the many visits paid to those countries by Australians.
He wished the visitors an en
joyable time.

Messrs. H. Y. Braddon and C. W. Oakes sup
ported the welcome.
The former said there
seemed to a desire to put off carnivals and similar events, owing to the war, but he thought it was a good thing to hold them, as they meant work for someone.
The visitors returned thanks.
The champion
said he had been looking forward to the visit for two or three years.

1914 'No title.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 15 December, p. 5, viewed 11 December, 2014,

The Referee
Wednesday 16 December 1914, page 1.

The Duke Reaches Sydney
Impressed by Baths : Distance Events : The Surf Board : By Cecil Healey

The Duke is here.
The celebrated Hawaiian and companions reached Sydney by the Ventura on Monday.

A big gathering of prominent swimmers and officials awaited the steamer's arrival at the wharf.
Many others, however, myself included, who were anxious to be present to greet the visitors when the stepped ashore, were misinformed as to the time the ship was due, and thus prevented from carrying out that intention.

The party consists of Kahanamouku,  Mr. Francis Evans, manager, and Cunha, another swimmer or repute.
To the suprise of all, Cunha is not an Hawaiian native as was thought, but a white man.
He was born at Honolulu and is of Portuguese-Irish descent.
Both he and Mr. Evans are short, slightly built men.
They look small by contrast alongside the Duke, who stands over 6ft.

The tourists were officially welcomed at the Hotel Australia at 5 o'clock on Monday afternoon.
Followers of the sport congregated in great force.
It was the largest and most representative assembly of natatorial enthusiasts ever seen in Sydney.
The guests were recorded a magnificent reception, the hero of the occasion, Duke, of course, being specifically signalled out.

The president of the N.S.W.A.S.A., Mr. James Taylor, who presided, in proposing the health of the visitors, remarked thatthe controlling body had endeavored unsuccessfully in the past to secure the presence of champions from other parts of the world to measure blades, as it were, with Australians under their own conditions.
It had remained for the Olympic champion, Duke Kahanamoku, to be the first accredited International swimmer to visit these shores.

The toast was supported by Messrs. H. Y. Braddon and C. W. Oakes, and drunk with enthusiasm and cordiality.

In replying, Mr. Evans conveyed the best wishes of the Hawaiian sportsmen to Australians for their kindly invitation..
He stated that Mr. Rawlins was extremely sorry at not being able to undertake the journey.
He explained that Mr. Rawlins had recently been elected a member of the legislature and he was debarred on that account from making the trip.
Their reception had been such as only benefited the greastest sports-loving country in the world.

The chairman's announcement of the Duke's name was responsible for a great burst of cheering, which continued after he had risen to his feet.
Kahanamoku did not portray signs of self conciousness.
He faced his audience calmly, and spoke deliberately.
He said he had been looking forward to visiting Australia for the last two or three seasons, and felt sure he was in for a good time.
Cunha also made a few observations.
None of the party, as a matter of fact, revealed a perchant for public speaking.

All my glowing impressions of the Duke (as a man) were re-established.
I had managed to get a chance to shake hands and have a chat with him.
He is a splendid dispositioned fellow, and I cannot concieve the thought of anyone taking other than an instant liking for him.
I make bold to predict that he will have ingratiated himself into the affections of a large number of Australians before departing on his homeward voyage.
I could not detect any alteration in his appearance.
He says he feels well, and his looks do not belie him.
The Ventura struck it pretty rough about 24 hours before she entered the harbour, but the travellers weathered the storm without suffering any dire consequences.


They found time since landing to have a dip at the Domain Municipal baths.
"What do you think of them, Duke?" I enquired.
"Gee! They're just fine, and the water's great," was the prompt rejoiner.
I then asked : "Do you intend to compete beyond the quarter-mile?"
This interrogation made the Hawaiian's big black eyes expand and sparkle, and he answered, with an accompanying broad smile : "I want to look the bunch over first before deciding."
He told me he had partcipated in a few, but not a great many, lengthy races the past year or two.
He apparently does not plan to be a long-distance champion.


We had begun to get reminiscent about Stockholm, when I recollected something I was particualy anxious to know.
Simultaneously, I exclaimed : "Oh! Did you bring your surf board with you?", to which he replied:
"Why no, we were told the use of boards was not permitted in Australia."
Evidently noticing the look of keen disappointment on my face, he quickly added:
"But I can easily make one here."

This information, I am sure, both swimmers and surfers will be delighted to be acquainted with, as holding out prospects of the acquirement of the knack of manipulating them.

I have not as yet seen Cunha in the water, but Longworth, who I consider an excellent judge, assures me he is a flyer; at least, that is the estimation he formed of him after watching him play about in the element for a while on Monday.
Cuhuna is not at all unlike Percy McGillivary, who, next to the Duke, was perhaps the most prominent member of the American Olympic team.

I enquired of Mr. Evans if the voyage across in the Ventura was uneventual.
"Not altogether," was his comment; "we lost a propeller," which made me anxiously question, "Not one of the Duke's, surely?"
Mr. Evans was happy to state the Duke was still of the twin-srew variety.
Bye the bye, Mr. W. W. Hill enlightens me as to how Kahanamoku came to be called "Duke."
His birth corresponded with the visit of the Duke of Cummerland to Honolulu, and he was christened so in honour of that event.
The visitors were located at the Oxford Hotel.


1. The interview Includes a reference to a previous report by Alexander Hume Ford (founder of the Outrigger Canoe Club at Waikiki), in 1908 that surfboards were banned in Australia and Duke's response : "I can easily make one here".
Noted by Thoms (2000) pages 22 and 23.
See Alexander Hume Ford : Beach Culture in Sydney, Australia.
Extract from The Red Funnel, Dunedin, New Zealand.Volume VI, Number 5, June 1908, pages 466 to 470.
The fastest swimmer in the world,
photographed at the Sydney Domain Baths 
two hours after his arrival in Sydney.
He secured second place in most of the Pacific Coast Championships, and can do 100yds in 57sec.
He is one of the Honolulu party now in Sydney.
The Referee, 16 December 1914, page 11.
Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 16 December 1914, page 6.


It was demonstrated on Saturday, in the club events, that our champions will be at the best condition to meet the famous Hawaiian visitor.
Albert Barry probably put up the best swim of his career over ??? metres by covering the distance in 64 4-5s, (Australasian record).
Owing to the large crowd at the Domain Baths, the water was disturbed, and Barry was interfered with by the spectators and competitors during his swim.
He should still do better, and Kahanamoku will meet him at his best.
Longworth also showed excellent form in winning the 200 yards event at Rose Bay in the fast time of 2m. 14 4-5s.
The late Barney Kieran's best over this distance was 3m. 11s.
It will be seen that the swim was full of merit.

Three carnivals will be held tonight.
Randwick and Coogee will hold the Harris Cup 800yds teams' race at Coogee baths; and William Longworth wiII defend his title in the Eastern District 880yds championship against S. Smith, who is swimming particularly well just now.
The chief event at the Abbotsford carnival will be the Western District Championship, and Woolwich club will hold its first gala in aid of the Patriotic Fund of the district.

The Melbourne club is sending what is practically a Victorian representative team of swimmers to meet the Sydney club in the annual contests at the Domain baths on Saturday.
In the breast-stroke they have always been successful.
The quarter-mile event promises to be a very open swim between T. W.. Mason (ex-champion of Victoria), L. and F. Grieve (representing Melbourne), and L. Boardman, C. Thomas, and G. Levy, who will appear on behalf of the local club.
The diving contestants will be N. Griffith (champion of Victoria), A. Sauter (who will represent Melbourne), and L. Boardman, L. McCarthy, and A. V. Barry, of Sydney.
Included in the Sydney Club's programme is the 880yds President's Cup handicap, and the entrants are notified that the heats will take place to-morrow night, at the Domain baths, at 8 p.m., and the final on Saturday.

A special meeting of the council of the A.S.A. will be hold on Friday evening to discuss the question of diving at the Kahanamoku carnivals.
Previously, at State championship carnivals, displays have been arranged by the best divers, but on this occasion the committee have arranged for a competition to be held each day.

Only two entries have been received for the A grade polo competition, and three for the B grade.
The disappointing response to the association's efforts led the polo committee to make a recommendation for the cancellation of the competitions this year, but it has been decided, by a very close vote, to go on with the arrangements.
The arrival of Kahanamoku and party by the Ventura last Monday has formed the completing a link in the great swimming celebrations, which are to take place in Sydney on January 2, 6 and 9.
It is the first time that Australia has entertained an international swimmer, and as as the present visitor is the world's best exponent, it makes the occasion the more memorable.
Duke Paoa Kahanamoku will find greater opposition in Sydney than any other part of the globe, and the entertainment at the Domain Baths should compare favourably with any other swimming function that has been held elsewhere.
George Cunha, who is accompaning Kahanamoku as swimming companion, is a performer of very high merit over distances from 50 to 220 yards, and has he has covered the 100 yards in 57 s, it is just possible that is possible that he may also outclass our best exponents in the sprint championship.
Francis Evans is manager, and has acted on several occasions with Mr Rawlins on tour with the Hawaiian teams in America.
They are members of the Hui Nalu Club, and the party will attend the Randwick and Coogee gala to-night, and Sydney- Melbourne contest on Saturday.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Friday 18 December 1914, page 2.

Two-reel Thanhouser Drama, "KATHLEEN, THE IRISH ROSE."
The Australian Gazelle of News Pictures includes last Saturday's SENSATIONAL CAVALRY SMASH AT LIVERPOOL, when the Light Horse charged over the Camera Men.


1914 'Advertising.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 18 December, p. 2, viewed 31 December, 2014,
The Australasian
Melbourne, Saturday 19 December, page 26.


To-day the fourth annual,, competitions over various distances between teams representing the Melbourne and Sydney swimming clubs will be held at the Domain Baths, Sydney. The Mel bourne club has selected a particularly strong team, though they will be without the services of W. B..Bennett, C. Powell, and Ivan Stedman, three fine swininiors. The team expect; to win the quarter-mile and breast-stroke events and div ing. The Sydney club swimmers are reported to be in good form. The result of the contests will be awaited with interest in Victorian swimming circles. The Melbourne Swimming Club's team, which includes H. A. Bennett, A, Saiiter, L. Grieve, F. Grieve, T. IV. Mason, \V. H. Finney; C. Husbands, M. Griffiths, anci 11. Snape as polo pla3'er and manager, left by the. express for Sydney this week. The competitions will be decided on points.

Duke Kahanamoku, the famous Olympic swimmer, arrived in Sydney on Monday, and was enthusiastically welcomed by New South Wales swimmers.
Kahanamoku will compete in the New South Wales championships, commencing at the-Sydney Domain Baths on January 2. Accompanying Kahanamoku is G. Cunha, of Honolulu, a fine swimmer, who is particularly fast over the sprint distances.
On Monday Kahanamoku'was welcomed at the Hotel Australia by Mr. J. Taylor, president of the Australian Amateur Swimming Union, who remarked that the union had endeavoured to bring champions of other countries to Australia for many yearn to try their skill against Australian champions in their own water.
Kahanamoku was the first Olympic champion to visit Australia.
Kahanamoku could rest assured of fair play, and he (Mr. Taylor) hoped the visitor's stay in Australia would he a pleasurable one. Kahanamoku briefly responded.
Kahanamoku unfortunately visits Australia at an unfortunate time.
Many Victorian swimmers have left for the war.
Kahanamoku, however, may rest assured, if he comes here, of a hearty welcome during his stay in Victoria.

At the annual meeting of the Brighton Swim ming Club recently Air. Cutler was elected presi dent. Mr. C. Stedman lias been appointed secre tary and Mr. J. C. Stedman treasurer. F. Jackson lias been elected captain. The club decided to abandon its usual open meeting, and to hold a scries of races throughout the season. A life saving instruction class is to be foimcd in con nection with the club..

Though only recently formed, the St. Kilda Open Sea Bathers* League lias a membership of over 150. Non-residents of St. Kilda are eligible to become members, and at a general mooting on December 10, which was attended by both sexes, it was an nounced that notwithstanding that no encourage ment had been given (lie league by the St. Kilda Council when it offered to provide a vigilance committee to control mixed bathing; similar to ihut in existence at Port Melbourne, Councillor Gray bad joined the league. The secretary, Air. J. A. Sharp, stated that open sea bathing was at present under the control of the Harbour Trust from the high-water mark. The St. Kilda Council, it was men tioned, had communicated with the "Minister for Lauds, asking that in the event of a lease for another enclosed bath being granted a condi tion should be inserted in the lease that no mixed baliiing should be permitted to take place in the baths. The league lias also asked tlio Minister not to take action regarding the St; Kilda Coun cil's letter until the opinion of the ratepayers lias

been obtained.

A one-mile swim was held at the Fairfield pa triotic carnival and military display on Decem ber 12. Twenty-three competed, and 21 finished. F. Kyne won from T. Ahearne, who made fastest time (lijniiii.). Ahearne apparently had a rapidly flowing stream to help him.

The Port Melbourne Swimming Club held a meeting in the open sea at the' north side of the new pier on Saturday. There was a very large attend ance of members and others, and races for both sexes and competitions on the sands were satis factorily carried "out by the secretary, Mr. J Lock and assistants. There was a good race for the Ladies' Bracelet, which was won by C-. liilpatrick from T. Rees, who started from scratch. Kil patriek won the first heat,, and J. Stamford the second. H. Watson won the State school boys* race from scratch in 49Jscc., and Miss' A. Rees (Port Melbourne, scratch) won the 50-vards ladies' handicap by a yard from Miss Morion (Hawthorn Ladies' Club, scratch). Miss Ivy Clarke (Hawthorn, 6scc.) was third. An amusing item .was the duck hunt, won bj- Downer. The Nott street State school (Port Melbourne) won the flag race, and the pairs' relay race was won by J. Rees and IV. Slater (Cscc.). Tire club lia6 a- rapidly increasing membership roll, and is becoming one of the strongest affiliated with the Victorian Amateur Swimmbig Association.
Three out of the five of the club's life-saving team, which holds the Victorian life-saving championship and the Treadwell Challenge Shield, and 12 others have joined the Expeditionary Forces.
One of these (H. A. Howlett, ex-secretary of the Victorian Amateur Swimming Association) is now in Egypt.

1914 'SWIMMING.', The Australasian (Melbourne, Vic. : 1864 - 1946), 19 December, p. 26, viewed 16 December, 2014,

New-York Tribune.
New York, December 20, 1914, page 13.

Some Stray Squibs of Gossip in Sport World

Fred Snodgrass wrote to John B. Foster from Honolulu that he was doing a lot of surf riding.
The answer to the fan who signs himself "Hopeful" is: No chance.
Sharks never come inside the breakwater.

We'll bet Fred rocks the boat.

New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, December 20, 1914, Image 13
Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC
Persistent link:

Sunday Times
Sydney, Sunday 20 December 1914, page 13.


The Hawaiian party of swimmers now in Sydney, comprising Duke Kahanamoku, George Cunha, and Francis Evans, true to their race, are very fine musicians, and although in their rush to catch the boat for Australia they forgot their musical-instruments, the native "Ukulelli" has been procured in Sydney through the courtesy of George Walker, Manly.
The three
visitors were delighted when the instrument was produced.
The Hawaiian music always is effective, but
the harmonising of the three voices in this particular instance has been particularly effective on the various excursions that the party have taken since their arrival.
At the dinner tendered by the Sydney Club to the
Melbourne team and the Hawaiian visitors last night, the party were forced to render several items before the audience were satisfied.

1914 'THE UKULELLI.', Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 20 December, p. 13, viewed 11 December, 2014,

Sunday Times
Sydney,  Sunday 20 December 1914 page 13.


The team of Melbourne Club swimmers who visited Sydney yesterday to take part in their annual contests with the Sydney Club, have determined to remain in Sydney until the Kahanamoku carnivals, and will compete on behalf of Victoria.
Ivan Stedman, the sprint cham pion of Victoria, who recently swam the 100yds in 57 4-5 sec in the 100yds championship of N.S.W. on the opening day.
Thus the representatives of the Hawaiian Athletic Union, Victorian Association, and the local body will compete for this honor, the occasion being unique, as previously the championships have only been open to swimmers of this State.
Recently it was decided to throw these events open to the world, and the response from oversea and inter-State competitors seems to have justified the move. N.S.W. championships have often been com pared with the world's blue ribbon events, but never until this year have they so justified that expression.
E. Finlay, of Western Australia, who is now in Sydney, is also a likely competitor, and his inclusion would further increase the widespread interest in the contest.


The N.S.W. Swimming Association have been informed that the City Council have arranged more favorable conditions with regard to the approach to the baths, and the seating accommodation for tie Kahanamoku carnivals, which open on January 2.
The asphalt paths have been made to the entrance from the carriage drive, and the railing at the front of the grand stand, which formerly was too high for comfortable viewing of the front seats, has now been lowered to enable patrons to witness the events without 'rubber necking.'

1914 'KAHANAMOKU CARNIVALS.', Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 20 December, p. 13, viewed 16 December, 2014,
1914 'IMPROVEMENTS AT DOMAIN BATHS.', Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 20 December, p. 13, viewed 16 Dec, 2014,

Sydney Morning Herald
Tuesday 22 December 1914, page 12.


The New South Wales Swimming Association has arranged for a display by Duke Paoa Kahanamoku at Freshwater on Wednesday morning, at 11 o'clock.
The famous swimmer will give an exhibition of breaker shooting and board shooting.

Clarence and Richmond Examiner
Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915), 22 December 1914 , page 2.


The fourth annual carnival under the auspices of the Yamba Surf Life-saving Brigade is to be held at Yamba on New Year's Day.
A unique and interesting programme bas been arranged, which includes championship swimming events, etc.
An exhibition of shooting the breakers with the aid of a board is to be given by Mr. T. Walker, who has had considerable experience on other well-known beaches.

1914 'DISTRICT NEWS.', Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915), 22 December, p. 2, viewed 9 June, 2012,

Evening News
Sydney,Tuesday 22 December 1914 page 7.

Kahnnamoku has definitely decided not to enter lor raoea longer than 4i0yd. When the (amoua swimmer wa. Invited, too question of competing In dlatance. other than eprtnta waa raised, and although he apeclallaea over the ahorter dlatancea only, he agreed to meet tne local committee and compete In races up to and Including the quarter-mile, thua hla chamjilonBbJp appearaneea will be 100yd on Jan uary !. 440yd on January I. and UOyd on Janu ary a.

It l- a pity that be, Longworth and Adrian will not be eeen In action over the hair-mile courts on January t, but followera ot the sport will recognlbe that tbe Hawaiian has played the game In agreeing to meet the redoubtable Loagworth and the other New South WoUb awlmmcrt In the 440jd dlatance. In view el the (act, that the 100yd on the Orel iuy will take lee. than a minute. It has been arranged that the Duke will make a se cond appearance *n that day, and aa nle fel low-countryman, Ooorge Cunha, la also a mem ber of the Hul Nalu Club, It will probably be arranged that a elub relay ecratch race will take place. Tbe pair would find etrenuoua op poaltlon In *uoh combinations aa Hardwlok and Barry, or Barry and Boardman (Sydney), Solo mon and Wrla or Colemon aod Hay (Manly), Healy and Jonea (Baal Sydney), and Page and Dexter (Raadwlck and CoogeeJ, while fne Mel bourne Club could also be represented pj fltedman and alaaon. The natter I* to be gone Into by tha axnu tlv* of the aaeoclatlon In the next day or so. when the second event In which the Duka wjll compete will be dennllelr decided. Cunha U also an aaplraut for New Ssutti Wales championship honor, at tha (ortbooiatqg camlvala, and baa enured the 100 aod fur Ipng events, Croat enlhuauam haa beep, ehown «hrong» out the ecboelt of the Bute In cpnneeOon with the Kabanamoku Scltool Day. belni earaued (or next Tuesday. The N.S.W. 8w|nspln(iU eoclatlon haa Uaue4 i000 lnvltatlona to Uf bora and their masters to wlueaa etbJbHiana by Kahanamoku, Ounha, the Merbouma team, and our own ohanreran. on the day In queatlos.

The co-operation of the City Council in thla oat tar tea enabled the controlling body to carry out the function without making a charge of any sort to the boys.
Kahanamoku and party were given a day  motoring down the South Coast, together with Association officials and friends, on Monday.
The party consisted of Duke Kahanamoku, Francis Evans, George Cunha, W. W. Scott, F. C. William., R. B. Hill. S. Smith, J. B. Pym, O. G. H. Merrett, F. Stroud, Boyle, Jack Longworth. W. H. M'Lachlan, Mrs. M'Lachlan, Mr. and Mrs . Goldsmith, H. Helllngs, P. Phiffer, Redmond Barry, and Misss Fanny Durack.
Cars were kindly places at the disposal of the Swimming Association by Messrs. Phiffer, M'Lachlan, Sam Smith, and F. Stroud.

1914 'SWIMMING.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 22 December, p. 7, viewed 12 December, 2014,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 23 December 1914 page 12

Holiday visitors are flocking to the city, in greater numbers than was anticipated, though the traffic figures show a considerable falling off compared with last year, when the record was established.

Tho express from Melbourne yesterday was in three divisions, and the trains on the northern and western lines were specially crowded.
Judging by the volume of traffic
yesterday, Sydney will be well filled with visitors this Christmas in spite of the depressing influences.

There has been a steady exodus from the city to the mountains and the South Coast and Hawkesbury districts.


1914 'HOLIDAY TRAFFIC.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 23 December, p. 12, viewed 24 December, 2014,
The Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 23 December 1914 page 12


There is practically little change since Monday in the general distribution of at
mospheric pressure over Australia.
Tho extensive "high" still occupies a position
favourable to a continuation of the rainy conditions.
The series of tropical "dips" in
tho isobars on the east coast of tho continent has worked eastward to beyond Norfolk Island and New Caledonia, and is replaced by another from the westward, just. off the New South Wales coast, which should result in a repetition of Monday's weather there.
The rainfall recorded was splendid over New South Wales, and parts of Victoria, and many heavy falls.were received.
The dips at present shown on the chart mark the influence of the big closed-curve depression, which lies over the greater part of the mainland, with its centre between the goldfields and Central Australia.
The "high" as a whole, is of a rough boomerang shape, and extends from Cooktown (on the coast of Queensland) south-eastward to Newcastle (on New South Wales coast), and theneo south-westward to the Eastern Bight.
In this shape is seen the strong possibility of a continuation of the rainy weather, with perhaps an intermittent brief spell, for this advance of the depression from inland should again accentuate the wet conditions, but with milder temperatures and squally north-east to easterly winds.

The centre of the"high" now lies to the east and south of Tasmania.
Antarctic energy is again asserting itself near the Western Bight, with, strong southerly winds and high sea at Breaksea.
The new "high" still lies in the. vicinity
of the west coast of Western Australia.
Ocean Forecast.-Strong squally southerly in the Western Bight, advancing eastward.

1914 'AUSTRALIAN WEATHER.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 23 December, p. 13, viewed 24 December, 2014,

Melbourne, Wednesday 23 December 1914, page 4.


(From Our Special Correspondent)
SYDNEY, Dec. 21.

Second only in importance to the visit of Duke Kahanamoku was the appearance of the Melbourne Club's team on Saturday [19th] at the Domain baths, when the boys from the South met the Sydriey team.
There was no
meeting, last year, but on the previous occasion the Melbourne won, and were as keen on retaining, the supremacy as Sydney on recovering it.
were some excellent finishes, particularly in the 440yds., in which,, though Sydriey won, I. Stedman (Melbourne) defeated C. Thomas (Sydney), with the Olympic representative L. Board man. third, and T. W. Mason fourth. G. Levy (Sydney) fifth, and C. F. Hus band sixth. Stedman had a good lead early in the race, arid instead, of coming back .to the others as he was expected to do, he held Thomas until the last 50 yards had to be negotiated. The latter put on an extra spurt, but failed by less than 'a yard. L. Board man was 10 yards away. Stedman swam the distance, in amin. 51 2-5 sec. Sydney won the 500yds. teams race, in 5 min 11 2-5 sec. A. W. Barry's time for the lOOyds/ was 58 2-5. He beat Stedman by 1yd. Sydney won, but Melbourne's crack was first in the 100yds. team breast stroke, H. Bennie proving invincible and casting the. dis- tance- behind in lmin. 22sec., S.' Beck, A.' -W. Barry and H. Voss (Sydney), j were, second, third, and fourth, ' L. ! Grieve (Melbourne) , .fifth and W. H. Turner - (Melbourne) sixth. Melbourne scored in the springboard diving, L. Grieve being first, and Barry (Sydney), second with Jago and Souter (Mel bourne) third, and fifth, L. Duff - and L. Boardman (Sydney) being 4th and 6th. '

Duke Kahanamoku was among the
spectators, a large crowd attending.

The Harris Cup inter-district spring
board diving competition was won by the Metropolitan- team — L. Duff, R. Provan, ;? E. Evans, and L. M'Carthy (Sydney), with Northern second and Eastern third. The 8S0 yds. Handicap (President's Cup) fell to A. M'Alister. of Rose Bay ? (4min. 30sec.) with C. Murphy, of Randwiclt and Coogee, 2 min. 45sec. second, and T. Adrian, of Manly, lOsec., -third. The time was lomin. 3Gsec., Adrian -was clocked to do 12min; 2sec. E. Cummins, 17sec., wori a 100yds. , handicap at Rose Bay on Saturday. C. I Longworth, 20sec., being second, and R. ' Longworth, 4sec., third. Ivan Stedman, sprint - champion of Victoria, who swam 100 yards in 59 3-S sec., against Barry, in the team rare | against Sydney, is to compete in the 100 yards championship of New South Wales on the opening day of the Kahanamoku carnival.

1914 'Swimming.', Winner (Melbourne, Vic. : 1914 - 1917), 23 December, p. 4, viewed 12 December, 2014,

Sydney Morning Herald
23 December 1914, page 6.


The fine swimming in the Sydney Melbourne club contests forecasts a strenuous and exciting time in connection with the Kahamamoku carnivals.
Next Tuesday the association will hold an exhibition for school-children throughout the metropolitan area.
The city council has granted them the free use of the gallery and 5000 tickets have been issued to the schools.
The program will include exhibitions by Duke Paoa Kahanamoku and George Cunha (Hawaii), Ivan Steadman (Victoria), and our best local exponents

Kahamamoku has decided not to compete in the longer distances.
He is not a distance or middle distance swimmer.
However, on this tour he has agreed to swim in all championships up and up to and including the quarter-mile; and will appear in the hundred yards on January 2,  440 yd. on January 6 and 220 yd. on January 9.
His companion, Geo. Cunha, will swim in the 100 yards and the 220 yards events on the two Saturdays, and will swim in the first-class handicap on the mid week gala.
Probably an attempt will be made on the 50 yards or 75 yards record, or a teams relay race over 220 yd., two men each racing 110 yards, will be arranged.
The matter will be settled within the next day or so by the executive of the A.S.A.
The second is the termination of the Melbourne club to compete at the carnivals is gratifying....

The Australian Swimming Union received a cable message from the secretary-treasurer of the Amateur Athletic Union of United States, through the Hawaiian Athletic Association, vouching for the amateur standing of George Cunha and the Duke Kahamamoku, and granting them permission to compete in Australia.
A similar statement asked for by the United States Athletic Union regarding the understanding of the Australian swimmers, was cabled.

The Sun
23 December 1914, page 5.


The swimming authorities have heard that through the publication of a paragraph yesterday to the effect that Kahanamoku would give an exhibition in the surf at Freshwater, Manly, some 2000 or 3000 people who assembled there to watch the show were disappolnted.
The famous Hawaiian did not put in an appearance, and he was not expected to do- so by those controlling his visit to this country.
The association wishes it to be made knownn that the "Duke's" first appearance in publlc will take place on the openlng day (January 2) of the championship carnival at the Municlpal Baths, Domain.
The announcement of any other arrangement with Kahanamoku as the central flgure has not that body's authority.

Longworth, Barry, and Cunha (Kahanamoku's companion) put up some speedy performances In the Municipal Baths, Domain, yesterday.
Longworth covered 440 yards in 5min. 30sec., Barry got over 110 yards in 1min. 2sec., which is only 3-5 seconds slower than Kahanamoku's world's 100 metres (slightly less than 110 yards) record,
accomplished at the Olympic Games held in Stockholm, two years ago.
Barry, it might be mentloned, is being trained in gymnasium work by Mr. Snowy Baker, for the forthcoming contests which are sure to excite world-wide interest.

Cunha's contribution to the swimming sensations of yesterday was 100 yards in 57sec.
Entrles for the several events In connectlon with the approaching championship meetlng, have closed, and are unusually numerous.
Mr. Hay, the association organiser for the carnival, spent the whole day Monday and the greater part of the night receiving them.
Those who will compete for the 100 yards honors are:- Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, George Cunha, W. Longworth. A. Barry, L.O. Solomons, H. M. Hay, G. Wyld, J. Huie, Tas Jones, E. G. Finlay, J. Stedman. B. G. Page.

“Non – Demonstration”, promoted for the 22nd December 1914.
Since the NSW Swimming Association had Duke Kahanamoku under exclusive contract and publicizing his first public appearance as 2nd January at the Domain Baths, the proposed surfing demonstration was in legal dispute.
The result was that Duke did not make an appearance, much to the disappointment of a crowd estimated between 2000 - 3000 people.
For Corbett biography see:

Melbourne, Wednesday 23 December 1914, page 4.


(From Our Special ' Correspondent)

Duke Kahanamoku had an experience of the method in which swimming carnivals are conducted when he visited the Coogee Aquarium Baths on December 16, and witnessed the 19th annual carnival of the Randwick and Coogee Club.

The Chief, event was the SSOyds. In- gSw ter districts teams' race for the Harris ||| Cup, in which the Eastern and Metro polit'an, with the Northern, had a ho^t. The, former won: the constituent parts. |||| and times being: B.'G. Page, 2min, IS 4-5sec: W. Longworth, 2min. 19 l-5sec; ^ Cecil Biealy, 2min. 19 4-5sec., and J. Dexter,- 2min.. 23 l-5sec. Metropolitan A. W. Barry, L. Boardman, C. Thomas. |S|| and G. Levy, was second, .with North- rap ern, L. Soloman, J. Herie, T. Adrian. Kk-; and Gwyld third. E. Smidley (Rose Bay.) Ssec., won the 66yds. ..Interciub BK Handicap, with O. Watson (Rechabites), flE 5sec., second, and . N. Longworth (Rose Bay), 7sec., third. Longworth had pre- m viously defended Smedley in the first ? semi-firial. . Miss Fanny Durack gave M an exhibition, swiiri of 200 yards. ? Kj J. Maloney has. won both'.the lOO yds. 9U championship of the Abbotsford Club and the 220yds. championship' of tlie §fl| Western Suburbs Clubs. He swam the |B| first iri 65sec., and the second in 2min. JKB 45 ??Mr John- Dawson, the ^Newmarket trainer, has two sons holding-, commis sions- in' his Majesty's Forces. The elder; 'Mr Jack Dawson,' is in the Wilts 9B Royal . Engineers (Territorials) 'arid is now a lieutenant, »his corps being sta tioned near Weyiwbuth'. Mr Dawson's younger son, Mr James Dawson, ;'threw up 'a- good appointment at Cairo to come home and enlist in Kitchener's ly§| Army, and he has been given a com- Ri# mission in the Worcestershire Yeo manry.


1914 'KAHANAMOKU'S EXPERIENCE.', Winner (Melbourne, Vic. : 1914 - 1917), 23 December, p. 4, viewed 12 December, 2014,
The Tacoma Times.
Tacoma, Washington, December 23, 1914, page 8.


"Without half trying," Miss Louise McGovern of Palo Alto, Cal., a graduate of Stanford university, captured a number of coveted prizes for surf-riding and swimming in Honolulu, from which she has just returned.

In her "own home town" Miss McGovern is a popular member of sorority circles and an athlete of notable accomplishments.

The Tacoma times. (Tacoma, Wash.) 1903-1949, December 23, 1914, Image 8
Image and text provided by Washington State Library; Olympia, WA
Persistent link:

The article was also reprinted as a full page with the title Local Girl Smashes Record, in
The Day Book, Chicago, December 24, 1914, page 20.

The Sun
Thursday 24 th December 1914 Page 6. (1)

(BY W. F. CORBETT.) (2)

One could hear , in the imagination the roars of applause with which thousands of Australians might have greeted Kahanamoku 's display at Freshwater, Manly, this morning, had the fact that it was to take place been made public. (3)
As it was there were only a few pressmen, some members of the New South Wales Amateur Swimming Association, and the casual Freshwater bathers present. (4)
The Hawaiian confined his show to riding the breakers with the aid of a board (5), such as been used in his native islands from time immemorial. (6)

There are surfboards in the Honolulu Museum  - narrow ones, 20ft. in length, and hoary with age. (7)
But the Hawaiian of today  enjoys what is, perhaps, the most exhilira-ating (sic) and exciting water sport known with the assistance of a much shorter aid - one about eight or nine feet long, 2ft. across, and weighing, perhaps, 68lb.
The board used by Kahanamoku weighed 78lb, and was sugar pine.

He would have preferred redwood , but a properly seasoned piece of that particular timber , sufficiently long, could not be procured in Sydney.
The necessary shape is almost that of a coffin lid, with one end cut to very nearly a point.
The surf riding board is thicker at the bottom than at the top, tapering all the way. (8)

Kahanamoku's control of the improvisation was wonderful, he handled it like a toy and went out  fully a quarter of a mile, riding some breakers and dashing through others with such speed that he completely mystified Messers. W. W. Hill and Hoy (8a), who entered the water with him.
Mr Hoy can throw a 100 yards behind in little more than a minute.
Not at any time in the race seaward did either of the swimmers hold the islander for a moment, and he soon away by himself. (9)
The Duke lay flat upon the board, and with arms widespread, paddled his own canoe vigorously. (10)

Unfortunately the water was not favorable.
Kahanamoku would have preferred a long roll.
He had to face a very short one.

"I'll do my best, anyhow," said he, and despite that the board was new to him , and he had never before essayed the task in Australian waters, (11) our visitor gave an exhibition which won the admiration of spectators who thoroughly understood the skill of it. (12)
It was a thrilling spectacle at times.
This finely-built  Hawaiian, with his powerful frame showing elastic muscles, as better and more enduring  than those of a knotty nature, caught the breaker he wanted , and paddling along for a while rose to one knee first, then became gradually erect (13.) and reached the crest to shoot foreword with astonishing speed and marvellous balance considering the troubled condition (14) of the motive power.

When the force beneath him was spent, he plunged into the sea, and picking up his board went off to try again.
Always was the nose of the raft (10), if it might be so called, kept tilted upwards, whether while shooting or forced against the breakers.
When the surf rider found his board hanging he stooped and paddled till it darted forward once more. (15)
Twice he managed to traverse 100 yards or more, and several times 20 or 30 yards were covered. (16)

It could easily be understood what a display surf riding must be in the ocean which laves (sic) Waikiki Beach  at Honolulu, where a long roll can almost be depended upon.
There 300 and 400 yards shoots are common.
Kahanamoku does not profess to be a champion when in his island home, but he is, he says as good as the very best there. (17)
The ease and grace of his shooting might be equalled, but it certainly could not be excelled.
As showing how much second nature it was to him, Kahanamoku stood on his head a couple of times, and even turned his back to the direction in which he was going, and posed. (18)
Lying flat on the board, the Hawaiian caused it to describe a half-circle or turn completely round without spoiling the shoot. (19, 20)

1. A first hand account, written and published on the day of the event.

2. Reporter W. F. Corbett joined The Referee, (a Sydney sporting paper) in 1888, where he reported boxing, swimming, lawn bowls and both codes of rugby.
He moved to the Sydney Sun in 1913. (Source -Rabbitoh Warren)
After a journalistic career of 37 years, he died in 1923, aged 67.
(Source -the Bulletin, Sydney, 1 November, 1923)

3. The opening sentence implicitly criticized NSW Swimming officials who prevented the demonstration scheduled for the previous day, much to the disappointment of an a crowd estimated between 2000 - 3000 people.
See Corbett's report, The Sun, December 23, 1914, page 5.

4. Only a small number of obsevers were present, compared to the large crowds reported, and shown in photographs, of later demonstrations.

5. The demonstration was with the board only, apparently enthusiasts were also anxious to see Duke Kahanamoku's body surfing skills.

6. The ancient origins of board riding is noted, information probably provided (and emphasised) by Duke Kahanamoku.

7. The boards reported as held by the Bishop Museum probably refers to those ridden at Wakiki in the 1830's by high chief Abner Paki and eventually restored by Tom Blake in the late 1920's.
See #502

8.  The specifications appear very close to being correct, unlike many subsequent versions.
Note the misreporting of specifications in SMH report of 25th December.
The weights of the Freshwater board and Duke Kahanamoku's reported Hawaiian board appears reasonable.
The Freshwater board was made from imported sugar pine, which had some use for surfboard construction in Hawaii in this period.

8a. Hoy, possibly a printers error for Harry Hay.

9. Demonstrated a surfboard's paddling superiority over swimming.

10. Several various terms are used - board surf riding board, canoe and raft.
The term surf board is not used

11. This demonstration is noted as Duke Kahanamoku's first test of board and Australian waves.
Doubt that Hawaiian boardriding was possible in local waves had been previously expressed by Australian swimming and/or surfing officials .
Evidently, Duke Kahanamoku did not.
It would also seem unlikely that he had not body surfed in Australia before this date.

12. The reporter demonstrates some surf knowledge, particularly in noting the unsuitability of the conditions.
More importantly he notes the knowledge of the spectators "who thoroughly  understood the skill of it."

13. The importance of wave choice and rudimentary take-off instructions.

14. Probably refers to a uneven swell or even choppy surface conditions, as indicated by photograph by the Daily Telegraph, 25th December, 1914.
Image below.
There is no estimation of wave height.

15. Further rudimentary  instructions...
- the dismount
- keeping the nose elevated when paddling and riding.
- adjusting stance to maintain trim

16.  Appears to indicate cutting-  that isangling across the wave, as opposed to riding straight towards the beach.
Rides of 100 yards are considered substantial by modern standards.

17. While aware of his own abilities, Duke Kahanamoku indicates that his skills are not exceptional and are attainable by others.

18. A spectatular demonstration of skill.

19. The manoeuvre "Lying flat on the board, the Hawaiian caused it to describe a half-circle or turn completely round without spoiling the shoot."  appears to describe a prone spinner, a  manoeuvre popularized by Boogie boarders, circa 1980.
Possibly performed in the white water (wave of transition), and also noted in the SMH report of 25th December. is not mentioned in any other contemporary accounts of surfing.
"He turned completely round, then lying flat on the board, he raised himself on his hands and swung the board from front to back and back to front, finally again standing straight up." .
20. Although often noted in later reports, there is no mention of tandem riding, Isobel Letham or the Manly surfboat.

The Daily Telegraph
Friday 25 th December 1914 page 7.


The exhibition was arranged by Mr. W. W. Hill, for the benefit of representatives of the press.
The board used by Kahanamoku was 8ft. in length, 3ft. in width (sic), 100 lb. in weight and narrowed at one end.
Going out into the water some distance, the Hawaiian laid full length on the board, and, waiting for an inrolling wave, he propelled himself beachwards with his hands.
As the roller gathered momentum, he raised himself on to his knees, then stood up, and rode gracefully for a considerable distance.
The conditions were not what Kahanamoku desired.
The breakers came over too quickly, instead of in a long roll.
On one occassion, however, Kahanamoku negotiated fully 200 yards before he turned. He also performed some acrobatics, and once stood on his head on the board.
Several enthusiastic surfers amoungst the spectactors endeavored to emulate the feats of the Hawaiian, but mostly the board either shot from under them or turned over.

1. Reporter unknown.
2. This demonstration is noted as the first. It appears to be a test of Australian waves, board and rider, and was not greatly publicised. There have may been some doubt by Australian swimming and/or surfing officials that Hawaiian boardriding was possible in local waves. Evidently, Duke Kahanamoku did not.
3. The reporter demonstrates some surf knowledge, particually in noting the unsuitablity of the conditions.
4. The width of 3ft is obviously incorrect aqd the weight is reported as 100lb. Compare ....
- 78lb, and Hawaiian model 68lb (the Sun )
- 100lb, and Hawaiian model 25lb (the Herald)
5. The enthusiasm of local surfers who immediately attempted to ride the board.
6. There is no mention of tandem riding, Isobel Letham or the Manly surfboat.
Sydney Morning Herald

25th December 1914  page 4.


At the invitation of the N.S.W Amateur Swimming Association a number of newspaper representatives, accompanied some of the officials to witness an exhibition of surf-board riding by Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, the world's champion sprint swimmer, at Freshwater yesterday (Thursday 24th December 1914).

It was Kahanamoku's first attempt at surf-board riding in Australia, and it must be admitted it was wonderfully clever.
The conditions were against good surfboard-riding.
The waves were of the 'dumping' order and followed closely one on top of another.
According to the champion, board-riding on the Waikiki Beach, Honolulu, is a pleasure and there it is possible to shoot in over a quarter of a mile.
Then too, Kahanamoku was at disadvantage with the board.
It weighted almost 100lb, whereas the board he uses as a rule weighs less than 25lb.
But, withal, he gave a magnificent display, which won the cordial reponse of the onlookers.

 Kahanamoku entered the water with the board accompanied by Mr. W. W. Hill and some members of the Freshwater Surf Club. Lying flat on the board and using his arms like paddles the champion soon left the swimmers far behind.
When he was about 400 yards out he waited for a suitable breaker, swung the board round and came in with it.
Once fairly started, Kahamamoku knelt on the board, and then stood straight up, the nose of the board being well out of the water.
But the force of the breakers never carried him more than 50 yards.
On a couple of occassions he managed to shoot fully 100 yards and then he cleverly demonstrated what could be done.
He turned completely round, then lying flat on the board, he raised himself on his hands and swung the board from front to back and back to front, finally again standing straight up.

If the condition of the water is favourable when Kahanamoku makes his public appearance in surfboard riding in Sydney it is sure to be keenly appreciated.

1. Reporter unknown.

2. This demonstration is noted as the first. It appears to be a test of Australian waves, board and rider, and was
not greatly publicised.
There have may been some doubt by Australian swimming and/or surfing officials that Hawaiian boardriding was possible in local waves. Evidently, Duke Kahanamoku did not.

3. The reporter demonstrates  some surf knowledge, particually in noting the unsuitablity of the conditions.

4. The difference in weight between the Freshwater board and Duke Kahanamoku's reported Hawaiian board
is questionable, unless the latter was of Koa, a lightweight native timber.
The Freshwater board was made from imported sugar pine, which was in use that  for surfboard construction in Hawaii in this period.

5. Demonstrated a surfboard's paddling superioity over swimming.

6. The manoeuvre "He turned completely round, then lying flat on the board, he raised himself on his hands
and swung the board from front to back and back to front, finally again standing straight up."  is unclear but
seems to describe a prone spinner, a  manoeuvre popularized by Boogie boarders, circa 1980.
Possibly performed in the white water (wave of transition), it is not mentioned in any other comtemporary accounts of

7. There is no mention of tandem riding, Isobel Letham or the Manly surfboat. 

Clarence and Richmond Examiner
Saturday 26 December 1914, page 16.



7. SHOOTING THE BREAKERS, with and without surf boards, by members of Yamba Surf Life Saving Brigade

Sunday Times
Sydney, Sunday 27 December 1914 page 14.


There is one man only in Australia at the present time who can get aboard a breaker.
He is Duke Kahanamouku, the human motor boat from Honolulu, one of the world's champion
swimmers, who is in our midst now for the forthcoming swimming carnivals.
Up till recently we had known him only by repute; we had seen him in picture in one of his famous attitudes — standing on his surf board, being borne shorewards on the crest of a wave, a smile on his dusky countenance, and there were a lot of us who imagined the poster to be grossly exaggerated; too theatrical, in fact.
But we are wrong.
The man on the poster is the Duke all right, but the picture errs on the side of modesty.
It should have shown him balancing himself on his head on the board.
This was one of the attitudes he struck at a
private display of his wonderful surfing prowess given before a small gathering at Freshwater last Thursday morning.
Nothing more remarkable in the way of a natatorial exhibition has ever been seen locally.  
Standing on the beach and looking seaward, all one could see was a towselled head, 300 or 400 yards away.
It belonged to the Duke.
As he rose on the next wave one could see his long dusky body stretched flat on his surf board, which was heaving and tossing like a cork on the face of the ocean.
A moment or two later there was a wild whoop of joy from the Hawaiian native, who could be seen scrambling on to his knees.
He got there at last, paddled frantically for a few yards, and then stood up.
For the fraction of a second he poised, and then, giving the board beneath him a dextrous twist with his foot, shot over the surface of the water at a tremendous rate of speed.
So lightning-like was the movement that all one could see was a dark figure — it might have been a post for all that the spectators knew — flying through space.
A distance of 100 yards — a very small shoot for the Duke — took but a few seconds to traverse.
What a picture he presented as he stood upright, the breakers curling beneath him, a smile on his face.
Then he moved his feet again, and turning the board completely round, dived backwards into the boiling surf.
A moment later his dark body glistening in the sunlight come to view again beside his precious board.
And then the process was repeated all over again.
The manner and rapidity with which Kahanamouku goes to sea on his board is truly marvellous.
The board is 8ft. 6in. long, 2ft. wide, and three inches through at its thickest part.
It reminds one of a coffin lid, the only difference being that it tapers at either end, more so at the front, however, in order to mount the breakers.
A little more wood is left in the lower half of the board for purposes of stability.
Its shellac surface is as slippery as a dancing floor, and altogether it weighs about 70lb.
It is not the Duke's private board, though, for it was made locally from sugar pine.
Kahanamouku's own board is made of redwood, and is about 10lb. lighter, but he is immensely pleased with the local production, and says that after he has rubbed sand into its surface liberally that it will be equal to his own.
Despite its great weight and awkward shape, the Duke shoulders his board jauntily until he reaches the shore.
He gives it a hefty push, and throws himself flat on it.
As soon as he gets into a foot of water he begins to work his arms, breast stroke — a method of propulsion that sends him out to sea about three times as quickly as a man swimming at his fastest rate of speed.
Last Thursday some of the best local swimmers tried to keep pace with him, but he left them hopelessly behind.
To balance himself on the board he simply places the left leg forward.
The right is ten inches behind in a diagonal position.
In such a posture he has complete control of the craft, and can, by using his feet, twist it in any direction he wishes.
He can even wheel it round in the water like a flash.
The best time to indulge in the sport, says Kahanamouku, is when there is a swell on the surface of the ocean, and when there is an almost complete absence of surf.
It is then that the dusky native is seen in his most picturesque attitude — balancing himself on his head on the board, and allowing the waves to bear him shorewards.
Under the same conditions the Duke performs another remarkable water feat.
He takes a boy out to sea with him, and mounting his board allows the youngster to climb on to his back.
In this fashion Kahanamouku and his passenger are brought in.
Of course, it would be a rare occasion when he would be able to perform this feat round the Australian coast.
Though there are dozens of natives at Honolulu who can ride a surf- board with almost the same dexterity as the Duke, not one of them can maintain his balance on the board and carry a passenger as well.
Once one has become expert in this form of sport in the water he forsakes body surfing for ever; why, it can readily be understood.
It is faster in every respect, is not nearly so tiresome, and as for exhilaration, well there is the same difference as between cycling and motoring.
 Of course, there is a good deal of danger in the sport, especially if there be other swimmers in the vicinity.
Provided, however, that various portions of the beaches round Sydney are set apart for the express purpose of surf- board riding, there is no reason why it should not become popular locally.
After witnessing Kahanamouku's remarkable display last Thursday, one of the local swimming enthusiasts remarked, "I'm giving up surfing; I'm going to duck into the bush right now to search for a piece of bark;" and he wasn't the only one in the vicinity filled with the same ambitions.

It measures 8ft 6in by 2ft, is 3in through at its thickest part, and weighs over 70lb.

Duke Kahanamouku, world's champion swimmer, standing on his surf board shooting the breakers at Freshwater. 
 — "Sunday Times" Photo.

1914 'THE HUMAN MOTOR BOAT.', Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 27 December, p. 14, viewed 27 August, 2014,

Evening News
Tuesday 29 December 1914, page 5.

Those who were privileged to witness the display given by Duke Kahanamoku on the surf board at Freshwater marvelled at the distance the famous Hawaiian swimmer ventured from the shore.
The very evident enjoyment he
felt drew the remark from his manager, Mr. Francis Evans.
 "I guess Duke is enjoying this
While in a tank he is just like a bird
in a cage."    

Duke gets all his swimming in Honolulu at the famous Waikiki Beach, where an accommodating coral reef about half a mile from the shore and it is quite a common sight to see him go right out to catch a wave as it breaks over the reef.
 He has never been at
home in the short baths of America although his performance in the small tanks has made his swimming world [gasp] there as in the longer stretches of water.
He likes the straight
course for the hundred provided at the Domain Baths, and is looking forward in a great go with Barry and Longworth next Saturday.
Cunha, Duke's companion on the other hand
is purely a tank swimmer, as those who shine best in a small bath are called in America, and visits the bath every day for his tryout.

1914 'DOES NOT LIKE BATHS.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 29 December, p. 5, viewed 15 August, 2013,

Clarence and Richmond Examiner.
Grafton, Tuesday 29 December 1914, page 7.


Surf enthusiasts are promised something extra special in breaker "shooting,"' for C. Walker, the most intrepid surfite of the Manly Club, will give exhibitions of shooting the breakers, standing on his head on a surf board.
The full detailed list ot events is advertised, and a good day's sport is assured to all those who attend.

1914 'SWIMMING.', Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915), 29 December, p. 7, viewed 4 June, 2012,

Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser.
Grafton,  Tuesday 7 September 1880
Walker Samuel, Chatsworth
Walker William, Yamba
Walker Charles, Chatsworth

1880 'THE CLARENCE ELECTORAL DISTRICT, 1880.', Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser (Grafton, NSW : 1859 - 1889), 7 September, p. 4, viewed 4 June, 2012,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Tuesday 29 December 1914, page 8.


This afternoon, at 3 o'clock, the New Sooth Wales Swimming Association has arranged for a special exhibition of the famous Kahanamoku crawl kick to schoolboys of the Stale.
Over 5000 invitations have
been issued to schoolboys, and a very large attendance is expected.
Duke Kahanamoku and George Cunha
(Hawaii) will demonstrate the kick, and Ivan Steedman (Victoria) and William Longworth, Albert Barry, and the other local champions will show the Australian crawl.
The points in which the two methods ol
propulsion differ will clearly be shown.

914 'KAHANAMOKU SCHOOL DAY.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 29 December, p. 8, viewed 12 December, 2014,

The Referee
30 December 1914, page 16.
SWIMMING : Kahanamoku in 100yds Championship

Representatives of the Press were invited to witness a private exhibition of surf-board riding by Kahanamoku at Freshwater on Thursday.
It was to have been the previous day, but the intention accidentally became public property, and as several thousand people were attracted to the vicinity, Association officials decided to postpone it.
Business considerations, unfortunately, prevented the writer from being present.

Freshwater enjoys the reputation of being, on the whole, the best beach for shootable breakers, but the conditions, I understand, were far from being ideal on that particular day.
The waves, for instance, were breaking too lose to the shore to permit of a good "run' being obtained, and, moreover, were of the "dumping" variety; also the board itself, which was made locally, was not exactly what was required.
It weighed in the neighbourhood of 100lb, whereas those in use at Honolulu are only a quarter that weight.
However, despite the disadvantages mentioned, the Duke succeeded in assuming the perpendicular, and negotiating several shoots in his familiar poster attitude.
One one occasion, whilst laying flat on the board, with a deft movement he swung the board right about, and proceeded backwards for a while before repeating the action and facing shorewards again.
A number of our leading surfers were spectators of the display, and from what I can gather the general impression amoungst them was that he did wonderfully well under the circumstances, but they feel sure it merely amounted to an indication of what he is capable of doing under more favorable conditions.
They have no doubt that when he has the opportunity to adapt himself to the vagaries of our surf, and strikes a suitable day, he will be able to do things of a really sensational nature.
The dextrous manner in which he handled the heavy board when taking it out through the breakers would appear to have greatly suprised the Sydney men.

Record entries have been received for the year's State championships.
Two are to be decided at the initial carnival, which is to be held at the Domain Baths next Saturday afternoon, namely the 100yds and 880yds.
The Olympic champion, Duke Kahanamoku, and his brilliant travelling companion, George Cunha, are competing in the former event.
It will be their first public appearance in competition.
Incidentally, it will consitute the first occasion that an overseas champion has ever raced in Australia.

1914 'SWIMMING : Kahanamouku in 100yds Championship :', Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), 30 December, p. 16. , viewed 22 Apr 2016,
Wednesday 30 December 1914, page 9.


(From Our Special Correspondent)

SYDNEY, Dec. 28.
Duke Kahanamoku favored several pressmen, at the invitation of the New South Wales Amateur Swimming Association, with an exhibition of surf board riding at Freshwater, near Manly, on December 24.
The conditions were rather against high-class work, but the 'Duke' overcame most of them and gave a magnificent display.
First of all, the waves were of.the 'dumping' variety, and instead of the usual board which weighs less than 25lb., the Hawaiian had to use, one on the verge of 1001b.
The popular secretary, Billy Hill, together with some members of the local club, accompanied Kahanamoku into the water.
His method of going out was to iie flat on the board and use his hands like paddles.
He left the swimmers astern, and about 400 yards out he selected a breaker suitable to return on.
When fairly on the move the 'Duke' knelt on the board, then stood erect, balancing so that the nose of the wood was out of the water.
On two occasions he travelled 100 yards, and it was an eye-opener to see him turn completely round, raise himself on his hands, and swing the board, from back to front, and vice versa, winding up by once more standing erect.


1914 'SURFBOARD RIDING.', Winner (Melbourne, Vic. : 1914 - 1917), 30 December, p. 9, viewed 13 December, 2014,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 30 December 1914, page


Sir,- Regarding the first appearance of Kahanamoku, might I place before the committee of the controlling body the advisability of limiting the number of swimmers in the finial of this race.
We have sometimes in these races witnessed interference through over crowding, and in this, the biggest swimming event yet held here, we should guard against that possibility.
A new scheme might also be tried by roping the course as in foot running, where each competitor his his own track.
With four or five swimmers this could be managed in connection with swimming, and it appears to me to be very necessary that it should be done.
Having commenced arranging these international visits, the public will naturally look for future events of the same class and standard, and we want our visitors to go back to their native land thoroughly satisfied that every chance was given them to compete under sporting conditions in a fair trial of strength.
I commend the matter to the association for its attention
I am., etc., "SWIMMER."

1914 'KAHANAMOKU'S MEETING.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 30 December, p. 4, viewed 13 December, 2014,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 30 December 1914, page 4.


An exhibition of swimming, arranged particularly for the benefit of school children, was to have been given yesterday afternoon by Duke Paoa Kahanamoku at the Domain baths.
Unfortunately, he was unable to be present, as since his exhibition at Curl Curl
(sic), he has developed what is known as "swimmer's ear.''
This, however, will not interfere with his subsequent engagements.
Yesterday his medical advisor was against him taking to the water, so the exhibition as far as Kahanamoku was concerned had to be abandoned.

An exhibition of the Hawaiian style of swimming was given by G. Cunha.
Other exhibitions by W. Longworth, H Hardwick, G. Smith, J. Stedman, and other local swimmers filled the programme.

Many flrst-class swimmers have experienced ear trouble, and Longworth was unable to compete in the Olympic Games of 1912 for this reason.

1914 'SWIMMING.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 30 December, p. 4, viewed 13 December, 2014,

Evening News
Sydney,  Thursday 31 December 1914, page 4.

In the final of the 100yd championship of New South Wales on Saturday, at the Domain Baths the starters will be: Duke Kahanamoku (Hawaii). George Cunna (Hawaii), A. W. Barry (Sydney), o. 1'age (Randwick and Coogee), W. Longworth (Rose Bay), and L. Stedman (Melbourne).
The preliminary heats were swum at the Domain Baths yesterday, though Kahanamoku did not compete.
His ear was not quite right, but it is expected to be well enough to allow him to go into the water from now on.
He was considered certain to have won his heat, and was placed in the final.
Cunha won the first heat - that in which Duke should have competed - with ease in 58 3-5 sec, J. Huie (Manly) being second.
In the second, Barry was first and Page second, two yards away, the time feeing 57 4-5 sec: while in the third, Longworth won by three yards from Stedman in 57 3-5 sec.
The association has made arrangements for a varied display of high diving at the Kahanamoku Carnivals to begin next Saturday at the Domain Baths.
The entries already received for the nigh and low spring board and high tower competitions include both the champions ot New South Wales and Victoria, while the display will be led by S. Riddington, who won the State blue ribbon at last year's galas.
All the well-known divers have been invited by the association to take part in the displays.
The 66 yards handicap held at the Domain Baths by the Palace Emporium Club, was won by L. Laing, 10 sec, with Thompson, 7sec, second, and F. Miller, nor, third.
The time was 48 sec.
The diving competition went to Thompson.

1914 'SWIMMING.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 31 December, p. 2, viewed 13 December, 2014,

Goulburn Evening Penny Post
Thursday 31 December 1914, page 2.


The attractions for to-night and the New
Year are headed by a sensational drama, "The Great God Fear," and "Max Gets Too Much Mother-in-law."
The former is a unique and
superior picture, fresh and pleasing in scenery, story, and acting, and the latter is especially interesting, inasmuch as it features Mr. Max Linder, who, it will be remembered, was reported killed whilst fighting against the Germans.
It has since transpired that he was
wounded only.
The supporting programme in
cludes an Edison drama, "The Letter that Never Came Out."
"The Australian Gazette"
presents Duke Kahanamoku, the swimmer, who is at present visiting Australia, and the Ligeet Horse manoeuvres at Liverpool recently which resulted in damage to the camera and operators.
"'The Gaumont Graphic" and "Wireless from
the War" are both acceptable items.
E'fred," a skit on the fairy story, by Hepwetmle, and "Mabel's Blunder," a Keystone, conclude the list.
A special holiday matinee it
announced for New Year's Day at 3 o'clock.

1914 'EMPIRE THEATRE.', Goulburn Evening Penny Post (NSW : 1881 - 1940), 31 December, p. 2 Edition: EVENING, viewed 12 December, 2014,

Autographed Postcard, Feb 11, 1915.
 E. S. Marks was  prominant in Sydney sports and was a member of the Manly Surf Club in 1910.
S and G Champion (2000) page 134.
Sydney's premier athletic track is named 
The E.S. Marks Field.
Postcard reproduced from private collection.

1 January 1914 : 
16 February 1914 : 
2 December 1914 : 
2 December 1914 : 
9 December 1914 : 
9 December 1914 : 
15 December 1914 : 
16 December 1914 : 
16 December 1914 : 
22 December 1914 : 
22 December 1914 : 
23 December 1914 : 
23 December 1914 : 
24 December 1914 : 
25 December 1914 : 
25 December 1914 : 
26 Decenber 1914 : 
29 December 1914 : 
30 December 1914 : 
Surfboard Injury - Yamba.
Miss Leatham Competes at Carnival - Dee Why. 
Preparations for Duke Carnivals - Sydney.
Duke Tour Extended to NZ - Sydney.
DukeExpected Next Week - Sydney.
Duke and Party Have Left Honolulu - Sydney.
Duke Arrives - Boardriding Anticipated - Sydney.
Duke Interviewed - Can Build Board Here -Sydney.
Duke Arrives - Sydney.
Duke Surfboard Exhibition Announced - Freshwater.
Tommy Walker Surfboard Exhibition Announced - Yamba.
Amateur Status for Duke and Cunha - Sydney.
Duke's Surfboard Exhibition Cancelled - Freshwater.
Duke's Surfboard Exhibition - Freshwater.
Duke's Surfboard Exhibition and Photograph - Freshwater.
Duke's Surfboard Exhibition - Freshwater.
Surfboard Exhibition Advertisement - Yamba. 
C. Walker Surfboard Exhibition Announced - Yamba.
Duke's Surfboard Exhibition - Freshwater.



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Geoff Cater (2008-2019) : Newspapers : 1914.