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newspapers : 1915 

Newspapers  : 1915.


Introduction - Format - Overview.
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The Globe and Sunday Times War Pictorial
Sydney, Saturday 2 January 1915, page 3.

The Wonderful Water Feats of Duke Kahanamouku

There is one man only in Australia at the present time who can get aboard a breaker.
is Duke Kahanamouku, the human motor boat from Honolulu, one of the world's champion swimmers, who is in our midst now for the forthcoming swimming carnivals.
Up till recently we had known him only by
repute; we had seen him in picture in one of his famous attitudes--standIng on his surf board,
being borne shorewards on the crest of a wave, a smile on his dusky countenance, and there were a lot of us who imagined the poster to be grossly exaggerated; too theatrical, in fact.

 It measures 8ft 6in by 2ft. is 3in through at its thickest part, and weighs over 70lb.

But we are wrong.
The man on the poster is
the Duke all right, but the picture errs on the side of modesty.
It should have shown him
balancing himself on his head on the board.
This was one of the attitudes he struck at a
private display of his wonderful surfing prowess given before a small gathering at Freshwater, Sydney, last week.

Nothing more remarkable in the way of a
natatorial exhibition has ever been seen locally.

Standing on the beach and looking seaward,
all ones could see was a towselled head, 300 or 400 yards away.
It belonged to the Duke.
he rose on the next wave one could see his long dusky body stretched flat on his surf board, which was heaving and tossing like a cork on the face of the ocean.
A moment or
two later there was a wild whoop of joy from the Hawaiian native, who could he seen scrambling on to his knees.
He got there at last,
paddled frantically for a few yards, anid then stood up.
For the fraction of a seconds he
poised, and then, giving the board beneath him a dextrous twist of his foot, shot over the surface of the water at a tremendous rate of speed.
So lightning-like was the move
ment that all one could see was a dark figure - it might have been a post for all that the spectators knew - flying through space.
distance of 100 yards - a very small shoot for the Duke - took but a few seconds to traverse.
What a picture he presented as he stood
upright, the breakers curling beneath him, a smile on his face.
Then he moved his feet
again, and turning the board completely round, dived backwards into the boiling surf.
A mo
ment later his dark body glistening in the sun light come to view again beside his precious board.
And then the process was repeated all
over again.

The manner and rapidity with which Kahana
mouku goes to sea on his board is truly marvellous.
The board is 8ft. 6in. long, Ifts wide,
and three inches through at its thickest part.
It reminds one of a coffin lid, the only dif
ference being that it tapers at either end, more so at the front, however, in order to mount the breakers.
A little more wood is left in the
lower half of the board for purposes of stability.
Its shellac surface is as slippery as
a dancing floor, and altogether it weighs about 70lb.
It is not the Duke's private board,
though, for it was made locally from sugar pine.
Kahanamouku's own board is made of
redwood, and is about 10lb. lighter, but he is immensely pleased with the local production, and says that after he has rubbed sand into its surface liberally that it will be equal to his.

Despite its great weight and awkward shape,
the Duke shoulders his board jauntily until he reaches the shore.
He gives it a hefty push,
and throws himself flat on it.
As soon as he
gets into a foot of water he begins to work his arms, breast stroke - a method of propulslon that sends him out to sea about three times as quickly as a man swimming at his fastest rate of speed.
Last week some
of the best local swimmers tried to keep pace with him, but he left them hopelessly behind.
To balance himself on the board he simply
places the left leg forward.
The right is ten
inches behind in a diagonal position.
In such
a posture he has complete control of the craft, and can, by using his feet, twist it in any direction he wishes.
He can even wheel it
round in the water like a flash.

The best time to indulge in the sport, says
Kahanamouku, is when there is a swell on the surface of the ocean, and when there is an almost complete absence of surf.
It is then
that the dusky native is seen in his most picturesque attitude - balancing himself on his bead on the board, and allowing the waves to bear him shorewards.

Under the same conditions the Duke per
forms another remarkable water feat.
He takes
a boy out to sea with him, and mounting his board allows the youngster to climb on to his back.
In this fashion Kahanamouka and his
passenger are brought in.

Of course, it would be a rare occasion when
he would be able to perform this feat round the Australian coast.
Though there are dozens
of natives at Honolulu who can ride a surf board with almost the same dexterity as the Duke, not one of them can maintain his balance on the board and carry a passenger as well.

Once one has become expert in this form of
sport in the water he forsakes body surfing for ever, why, it can readily be understood.
It is
faster in every respect, is not nearly so tire some, and as for exhilaration, well there is the same diiference as between cycling and motoring.

Duke Kahanamouku, world's champion swimmer, standing on his surf board shooting the breakers at Freshwater.
 -"Sunday Times," photo
[reprint, not 1915 newsprint copy]

Of course, there is a good deal of danger in the sport, especially if there he other swimmers in the vicinity.
Provided, however, that
various portions of the beaches round Sydney are set apart for the express purpose of surf board riding, there is no reason why it should not become popular locally.
After witnessing
Kahanamouku's remarkable display last week, one of the local swimming enthusiasts remarked, "I' up surting; I'm going to duck into the bush right now to search for a' piece of bark;" and he wasn't the only one in the vicinity filled with the same ambitions.


1915 'The Wonderful Water Feats of Duke Kahanamouku.', The Globe and Sunday Times War Pictorial (Sydney, NSW : 1914 - 1917), 2 January, p. 3, viewed 22 August, 2013,

Although unacredited, this is clearly a first person account of the Duke's first "private" surf riding exhibition at Freshwater Beach on 24th December, 1914, and published four days later.
Importantly, this is the only press account that most accurately reports the board's length (actually 8 ft 6.5 in), and the actual details of Duke's technique are highly realistic.
Note that the board was "made locally from sugar pine" and not, as often reported, "made from local sugar pine."
Although "its shellac surface is as slippery as a dancing floor," before riding the board Duke "rubbed sand into its surface liberally" for grip.
This information was apparently considered so basic, that it does not appear to be reported anywhere else in the literature.

The photograph of
surf riding has been widely reprinted and is accredited as Cronulla by Thoms in Surfmovies (2000) page 22),
however this contemporary publication confirm that both can only be taken at Freshwater.
The posted image is from a reprint and not the poor defintion newsprint copy.
The photograph of Duke carrying the board, while similar to a commonly reprinted image, has not (I think) been previously identified.

The reference to Duke's skill at
tandem surf riding at Waikiki strongly indicates that the Isabel Letham was not a participant at the 1914 exhibition.
Saturday Referee and the Arrow
Sydney, Saturday 2 January 1915, page 3.


The president (Mr. C. D. Patterson) and officers of the Surf-balhinE Association desire to express, through our columns, their appreciation of the work of club members during the past year, and hope that they will have a highly successful New Year, and personally wish them a Happy and Prosperous one.
Full advantage was taken of the beaches during the holidays, and the improved accommodation, particularly at Coogee, was much appreciated by the public, and as far as the writer's knowledge extends, no complaints were made.
The lookout kept by the various clubs, on their particular beaches, was also the means of the festive period passing off without any accidents.
In several instances bathers were carried out, but in every case speedily rescued by the members of the life-saving ciubs.
At Cronulla, members of the local life-saving club, who happened to be in the vicinity at the time of an alarm, rushed to render assistance without divesting themselves of their clothing
Their promptitude and unselfishness
was heartily, commended by visitors' who witnessed the incident.

'What's the boat for,' queried the Duke, in a surprised tone, when he espied the Manly L.S. Club's surf boat putting into Freshwater on Thursday last.
''We got them to bring it round to pull your board out for you,'' replied Don Mclntyre, beaming with pride and delight at the thought that his favorite haunt was to be the scene of the famous Kahanamoku's first exhibition in Australia.
The Hawaiian greeted this information with a roar of laughter.
The reason for his irrepressible mirth was not apparent at that particular moment to the officials surrounding him.
You see, they were aware, and duly impressed, with the fact that the plank in question weighed something like 100lb.
Their action, of course, in arranging to have the boat in attendance was dictated by overlooked that the Honolulu marvel is not a normal being, as far as his capabilities in the water are concerned.
 They were completely enlightened as to this when they saw him take possession of what they fondly imagined would be an encumbrance in the breakers and make off with it seawards at such a rapid rate as to leave one of our crack swimmers far in the rear.
Then they realised where the joke came
pr'cciatcd it quite as much as the Duke himself.
Members of the Freshwater Club were fully conscious of the honor conferred on their beach by its having been selected as the rendezvous for the distinguished visitor's initial display, and the committeemen saw to it that ample refreshments were provided.
Press folk and officials privileged to view the exhibition.
The supplement to the Surf-Bathing Associa
tion's handbook is now ready, and will be in the hands of all clubs this week. Conditionslaid down will govern all future examinations
until further notice.

1915 'THE SURF AND SURFERS', Saturday Referee and the Arrow (Sydney, NSW : 1912 - 1916), 2 January, p. 3. , viewed 22 Apr 2016,

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
January 2, 1915, page 1.


Duke P. Kahanamoku, who set a new world's record in Sydney today and showed he has not "gone back."

"George Cunha is Second, While the Australasian Crack, Barry, is Third.
SYDNEY, Australia, Jan.; 2.
Results of hundred: Duke, Cunha, Barry.
Time, 53 4-5 seconds.- "Evans."

The above, brief cable, received this morning by W. T. Rawlins, chronicles a great victory for Duke Kahanamoku and George Cunha in their initial appearance in Australian waters.
The time sets a new world's record, putting
a full second off Duke's own mark made here 21st February last; and the fact that; George Cunha finished ahead of Barry, Australia's crack sprint swimmer, makea it notable that the Healani swimmer also covered the distance in faster time than ever before,
The conditions of the race were 100 yards straightaway.
Duke Kahanamoku set the mark of 54 4-5 seconds here on February 21 last, at the carnival swimming meet.
On June 11 last he equaled this mark, and was closely pressed by, Cunha in the race.
Kahanamoku and Cunha will swim another Australian meet January 4, and with both men in fine form, it seems likely that all the Australian records thet they go against are in imminent danger of being fractured.

Chronicling America

Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii), 02 Jan. 1915.

Clarence and Richmond Examiner, Grafton.
Tuesday 5 January 1915, page 7.


The fourth annual, aquatic carnival was held in the Yamba Bay on New Year's Day.
The weather was everything that could be desired and an enormous crowd lined the shores of the bay.
As soon as the boats arrived the contests were commenced, but owing to the tide being unfavourable some of the races had to be abandoned.
It is a great pity that such was the case as the championship race caused much disappointment and ill-feeling, a protest having been entered against the winner, which the committee has set aside for hearing.
Otherwise the sports on the whole were up to expectations.

The following officiated: Judges, Messrs. A. McLachlan and W. Peoples; starters, H. M. Henderson and W. Craig; committee, Messrs. E. J. Gibson, T. Walker, H. Till, W. Craig, L. McDonald, H. Smith, H. Englert, P. Kingsbury, C. G. Englert (secretary), O. Notley (treasurer).

Boys Campionship, 15 years and under, 5O yds.- M. McDernid and J. Englert (dead heat) for first; Bawden second.
Youths Handicap, 15 years and under, 50 yds.- V. Shore, 1 sec, 1; M. McDermid, scr., 2.
Won by a yard.
100yds Championship of Clarence River, trophy valued £2 2s.- G. Phillis (Harwood), 1; A. Henry (Grafton), 2.
Time, 1.14.
Other starters: C. McGrath, A. Saul, Jack Spring, A. Evans, Rowell.
A protest was lodged against winner.

Brace Relay Ràce, 200yds.- 1. Englert and V. Shore, 1; Henderson and S. Keogh, 2.
100yds. handicap had to be abandoned owing to insufficient water being in the bay.
After lunch sports were held on the ocean beach.
The members of the Surf Club gave a very creditable exhibition of life saving and shooting the breakers, T. Walker being very brilliant in his surf board display

1915 'LATE SPORTING. YAMBA SURF LIFE SAVING BRIGADE.', Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915), 5 January, p. 7, viewed 5 January, 2015,

Evening News
Sydney, Thursday 7 January 1915, page 3.


After a great finish, Tommy Adrian, of Manly, beat Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, the celabrated Hawallaii swimmer, at the Domain Baths last night.
The race wasfor the 440 yard, cham
pionship or New South Wales, and how the Manly tor won is likely to be talked about for a long time.
And It deMrrsi to be, the
fttrnggle over the last SO yards being muni

ncent. Nothing better could have seen vlshud tor. W. Longirorlh. the holder ol the title, was unable to defend It, owing to rudden lUneaa. It «as a serere blow to tlr: winner ot many championships, irbo had devoted considerable attention to nui prcparalloa for the event. He was looked upon a* the man wfco could prob ably down tbo Hawaiian, no] when Longwo.-tii could not swim, Doke wu regaided aa a cer tain wlnupr by enthuslarts generally, thoufili they hoped to see Adrian Klve Tlsltor a h r 1 race. Hut at one stase they teemed to be In for a big dlsappolntmeit, and for the greater pan of the time the crsrl of about MOO was comparatively quiet. Kauanamoku, F. PitU (BaM Sydney), Adrian -Mnnl-), rage (Randwlclc and Coogee). and C. Tbom.ts (Fydney) were thu t-la;tcrs, and that was the order In which Hit sto ij on tbc starling board. After Duk... naJ -lived Into the nat»r to prt wet. a prarllce be follows be fore etartinB In any race, Mr. A. C. W. Hill sent tlie men away cxcL-ilmtly. It waa er.*y to plrk out Kahanamoka. There vas an «6 aence ot any fptasb from bis feet, but the sante could not bo tald abo'it Che jthero. Uulu vent along wlthnut any tppjrent rffort. Thi'r. a««med to be no DustK- u the in9tvoiABt of Blf long arnu. 'Thomas lrais Mirlan la second, and Duke third,' callr,! uut Mr. fni. WlUlame. the man with the negation'', as the swimmer* com pletrd thn flrei lap ul uo rards. Half way down the jrrond lap Tliomas was .till aheao, but Kahtnamoku bad mt-v..J Into second placa. ?torn was nttl- rxritomrm. tbe general lm prasalon being that ta-- Hawaiian, who was go lnc along In »?»»- Mik, ».i« simply waiting. Ano yet tbo pare was noi sl^n. th« time ror no yards being only If. m« onds boblnd tbe world's record lor th» 'clistan. ??? At the end of tbe third lap. howrrir, thore was a mighty change In tbe attitude of tlie nnlookerfi. 'Adrian l« first,' railed out Ur. Williams a. tin men turnni for th-- la-i 110 yarda. His other words were drowni-l hy the noise. 'Tommy, vou beamy:' -Adrian wins!' shout ed witod spei-iainr*. although he had only a slight lead ot Kabauomoku. That Aid not mat ter. The Manly FWlmmer was ahead. One well known enthusiast from -the vnl»|e' really vent mad. Me Fhniitr-1. iJaneed, flung his anuu sbout. and] Ilki-lj to fall Into the water In bih exoltetneal '?Come on, Tommy.' be yelled. Adrian was going a£ fast a» he possibly i-ould, beran«: Kahanamoku ».b only a yard away. The other tw- c.tninien «cre forgotten. TOUi bad liven u? at the bair-dlsuncc. Adrian and Duke were cIoeo togrihir, and on they went at top paic tbo former maintained his lead until with 60 yaids to k«-. Then Duke mado a tremcudous itfort, and Ineb by Inch be galnod on the leader. Thtf Euap^nbe waa awlul for the Manly cham pion's admirers. They saw bis advantage grad ually disappearing, and lac ilnfeblng board ap peared such a long way off. Kabanamoku waK

poinp great guns, and Adrian eouia noi go any fabter. A yard remained, and even then the Tlallor looked like touching first, but It *a.s not to be, Adrian doing so Jutit a fraction ahead of Ibo Hawaiian, with Thomas third. The announcement that Adrian was the. win ner was greeted with cheers of a dcafanlne i'ha ractor, and ae tbc cbsmpion was assisted from tt4 water— be bad used up all bit} energy— there was another demonstration. lie hail 6«um a good rare, and Duke admitted ufler wards that Adrian was a good 6Wlmmer. The time was 5raln Slisee, wbU'h was slow rom i pared with tb« world's record of 5mln ^3ticr, vMan-llEhcd by Bcaurepalrc, of Victoria, In June, 1910. The «0 yards race sent the crowd away In a good humor. It had been disappointed ovibk to Barry and Cunha having failed to gain vlnees Id their heals In the 110 yards Intcrclub bAit dlcap, n great race In tbe final between the pair having been expected. Cunha completed tbc distant-? In record time for Australia— linin 3 3-5sec— two-fifths of a second fapter !n-tt! Kahanamoku swam on Saturday In the relay race, but he rould not give J. ncxter iRaad wick and Coogee) fsec start, J. Lovelace (llcu dl) and J. Hulc (Manly), lOser. The three nn. lsbed In lhat order. G. Lyons (Sydney), !Mt':. H. M. Hay (Manly), 3mc. and S. r. Ottoo (North Sydney), Ssee, were the plaeegetleni In Barry's heat. The nnal went to Cotton, with Lyons second and Lovelace third, the limp being ]mln 9scc. the race being a very so*' E. C. Finlay, holder of tbo Australian tuic. had no difficulty In annexing the 330 yards breast stroke championship of N.S.W., In re cord time ror the Slate, 3mln ITsec. Tbe pre vious beet was 3mln 17 :-Efcc, though Flnlay'ii own Australian record Is 3mln lOser. H. I.. ntt (North Sydney) was second, and K. A Ball (North Sydney) third. In the third beat or the :» yards Int--Mub relay handicap there wa» a splendid finish be tween A. J. Pool lY.M.C.A.) and A. Kronfeld (IDaal Sydnerl. Th-y swam level for fully 30 yards, Foot Just getting his hand on tl'o board first at tbo flnlsb. Tho final uas won by 3. Eve and G. Snell (Moiman), Idscc, with G. Doran and E. Robinson (Woolwich), ISnor. second, and A. J. Foot and E. Cornish (V.M-C.A.) lOsm. third. Tbe time was 2mln 33 S-tscc. The ladles' Invitation handicap of U0 yards resulted In a win lor Miss L. Fevyer. llspc, ?with Miss B. Lovelace. Msec, and (Ml«s O. Sly. S2aec, a dead heat for second place. Miss Fanny Durark competed, and though she Hud to concede big starts, she was not far behind the place-getters at the finish. There waa a good deal of dlvlng-a little too much In fact. Besides a display hy HCarthy and his troupe, two competitions were decided. H. Wann (Mosman) was declared the winner of that off the low springboard, with R- Provan (Sydney) second, and R. Eve (Hosmaoi tilrc. Tbe verdict was hooted, the general opinion fav oring Eve. The high sprlngbosrd competition went to L. MCarthy (SMneyl. O. Bell (Pyr roont) being nocond. and II. Provan third. F. Lough (Manlyl won the chase the glow worm.

1915 'GREAT SWIMMING.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 7 January, p. 3, viewed 5 January, 2015,

Evening News
Sydney, Thursday 7 January 1915, page 3.


Already Kahanamoku has broken one world's record In Sydney, and Cunha, his companion, has captured an Australian record, but they are not satisfied.
At the carnival to be beld on
Saturday at the Domain Baths, Cunha will at tempt to lower the existing time for 60 yards, and on the form he is showing he should be successful.
If he is, all the sprint records
will belong to tht visitors.
Kahanamoku, while giving every praise to
Adrian for his win in the quarter-mile championship, has an idea he can lower the world's record tor the distance.
He did not swim the
Oral hair or the distance in th. tluyds race on Wednesday nlgnt as laat as he was capaole ol doing, ano when he returns to Sydney rrom Brisbane h. will try to lower the record.
Is hoped that Longvorth will then be able to meet him In a race over the distance.
Longworth is making good progress.
He is
out of bed, and says he feels well enough to swim on Saturday, but it will not be known if he will swim until to-morrow, when the doctor will give bis opinion.
The success of Adrian in the quarter-mile
event is a tribute to a plucky swlmmer's perseverance.
He has an awkward style, but he
kept on plugging away, and has been rewarded.
Tommyis the  first Manly swimmer to secure a
State championship.
The takings on Wednesday night's carnival
amounted lo £160, a total ot £750 for the two fixtures.
It has been stated that Kahanamoku is to
recieve a big percentage of the receipts, but those who talk like that are making a huge blunder.
At a fact, the visitors do not han
dle a single penny.
Their fares and expenses
for board are being paid, but the money is not touched br them.
The officials of the aasocia
tion in the State where the Hawaiians are competing have the bill sent to them.
namoku is not even allowed any pocket money.
Mr. W. W. Hill. hon. secrotary of the Aus
tralian Swimming Union, made the position culte clear this afternoon.
He said the Americ
an authorities in guaranteeing Kahanamoku's amateur status, asked that the governing bodies here should see that It was not affected.
said we would do that.' added Mr. Hill, 'and we intend to keep our word.'

1915 'HAWAIIAN SWIMMERS.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 7 January, p. 7, viewed 5 January, 2015,

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, January 7, 1915, page 8.


Alvin D. Keech nr.d Kelvin K. Keech. former Honolulu boys, are visiting their old home after having made a success in business in California.
The Keech boys are conducting a music house in San Francisco, which developed from a one-room salesroom to its present proportions of a six-story Keech building, the greater part of which is occupied by the offices and salesrooms of the Keech enterprise.
The Keech store carries all lines of music and musical instruments, making a specialfy of the guaranteed Hawaiian-made Hawaiian ukulele.
The present trip Jo Honolulu is made for a combination of business and pleasure, the renewal of old acquaintances being a happy feature.
The young men are making their home at the Hustace villa and will return to San Francisco by the Matsonia.

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, January 07, 1915, 3:30 Edition, Image 8

Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Northern Star. Lismore.
Saturday 9 January 1915, page 4.


At Yamba on New Year's Day Sam Waker, a member of the Life Saving Club there, gave an interesting exhibition of
shooting the breakers on a redwood surf board 11 ft. long and 3 ft. wide.
Getting well out on the edge of the break, Walker mounted his board, whistled "Tipperary" for a few seconds, and then found
himself back on the beach again.
It was fine to see him standing (sometimes on his head) on the board, sailing in at a fast rate of speed.
It is remarkable to see him maintain his balance on the board, for a person would have to be an athlete as well an being an expert
We can safely say that in Sam we have a great rival of "Duke" Kahanamoukua, who is at present creating such a sensation
amoungst the surfing fraternity of Sydney, remarks the "Advocate."

1915 'SHOOTING THE SURF.', Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 - 1954), 9 January, p. 4, viewed 4 June, 2012, 

The Maui News.
Wailuku, Maui, January 9, 1915, page 6.

Fighting Amusement Program.

A strenuous fight is on in Honolulu on the matter of the proposed amusement pier, application for a permit for which is now before the Harbor Commissioners.
Advocates for the project claim that it will be an asset, while opponents hold that It will mar the beauty of Waikiki and interfere with bathing and surfing.
Duke Breaks Own Record.
A cable message from Sydney announces that Duke Kahanamoku had made 100 yards in the remarkable time of 0:53 4-5, or a full second less than he made the distance in Honolulu last June.
Cunha, who is also participating in the Australian swimming meet, also defeated Barry, the crack Australian swimmer, according to the cable.

Chronicling America
The Maui news. (Wailuku, Maui, H.I.) 1900-current, January 09, 1915, Image 6

Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Sunday Times
Sydney, Sunday 10 January 1915, page 2.


Duke Paoa Kahanamoku can do two things.
He can swim and sing.
He swam- yesteraay
atfernoon, and he sang last night at the reception tendered him by the Swimming Association
There may doubts about his swim
ming being orthodox, but there are none about his singing; neveitnciessi he received a ucaten inu roar ot appltuse, Uucaiue ic was his way at ivaponding tu the -toast ot his health. 'bing, Duitc, sing 1' roareti tne gat,jKring v/hen the ausky Hawaiian rose 'to respond, aomc body pushed a \veird-loo/.ing native instrument into tne Duke'a hand, and tne next moment ths swimming giant burst into song to the accom paniment ot the wierd-est- strains one ever lis tened to. It was something between the high pitched notes ot a moiiqu'lo and the angry hum of a swarm of bees on the wing, but it earned a wonderful reception. Give us more !' yelled thf jatheving. This time the Duke came down to civilisation and sang 'By the Sea,' and n tew venturesome sports, helped him along.. 1'ina.^y the Du;e thanked his entertainers and s .t dowi. Then it was Ge6rge CunhaV turn. ? He

greeted the eathering i 1 .Hawaiian, but cries of 'No sa/ree r rang- oi; -.'. Then he ? murmured suinc 11. 3re Hawaiian and. brought down the house by asking :.'D_- you. get me?' Nobody uidn't, and he, too, re-jumed his seat.

1915 'KAHANAMOKU, SONGSTER.', Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 10 January, p. 2, viewed 5 January, 2015,
The Port Macquarie News and Hastings River Advocate
Saturday 16 January 1915, page 5.

Surf Carnival.
The Port Macquarie Surf and Life Saving Club.

 ? ? ?— Wl HOU) A — GRAND CARNIVAL , — OK —

Anniversary Day,,
1. Exhibition of Coogee Life-Saving Club,
Methods of Release and RsM^Hland and
2. Exhibition of Coome Club j^HSlif e-S»ving
with Life-line, and Reeus^^HT
3. Alarm Reel Race, Port BgBKe v. Coogee.

4. Surf Raoe, ISOyds., aU-oiHs. Trophy, £1 Is.
5. Surf Raoe, IGOyds., ^B- Ohampionuhip..
Trophy, £1 Is. w 1 '
6. Shooting the Breakers, all-comers. Trophy.

7. 6wimmrag Rue, 100 yds., handicap, Trophy. I
& Swimming Race, 60yda , Boys, handicap. I Trophy. ' 1 9. Swinmring Rate, 50yds, Old Buffers, handicap, I Trophy. 10. Tiupof-war, teams o( 6 men aside. 11. Foot Raoe, 100yds., handioap. Trophies let and 2nd. la Obstacle Raoe, land and water.

1915 'Advertising.', The Port Macquarie News and Hastings River Advocate (NSW : 1882 - 1950), 16 January, p. 5, viewed 5 Jan, 2015,

The Sun, Sydney.
24 January 1915 page  4.


Despite the continual outcry against surf-boards, the danderous aids to shooters are still being used, and one last night at Coogee hit Mrs. Martha Green, aged 60, with such force that she is now in Prince Alfred Hospital with her right leg broken in two places.

Mrs. Green, who lives in Burren-street, Eskinville, was enjoying a dip close in shore, about half-past 8, when a shooter, some
distance out with a board, caught a forceful breaker.
In the dark Mrs. Green could not see him coming in, and the man crashed into her leg, board first.
She was knocked over and endevored to struggle to her feet, but finding the task beyond her, cried for help.
Two men carried her to shore, and the Civil Ambulance rendered first aid.
She was then taken to hospital.

Goulburn Evening Penny Post
Saturday 23 January 1915, page 2.
The "Australian
Gazette," a fine number, shows the country week tennis carnival, Kahanamoku winning the 220yds. championship, some military views, and several other topical "bits" of interest, and the "Gaumont" contributions are, as usual, up to top notch.

1915 'EMPIRE THEATRE.', Goulburn Evening Penny Post (NSW : 1881 - 1940), 23 January, p. 2 Edition: EVENING, viewed 30 Dec, 2014,

The Sun, Sydney.
29 January 1915 page  2.


Last night Alderman Railton drew the Manly Council's attention to the dangers resulting from the careless use of surf boards at South Steyne.
He asked the council to prohibit the surf boards altogrther on the beach, as the people who used them would not keep outside the
area of the ordinary bathers, as instructed.
Ultimately it was resolved to issue instructions to the bathing inspectors to enforce strictly the rule.
Anyone, therefore, using the boards in the vincinity of the surf bathers will be prosecuted.

The Argus
Melbourne, Tuesday 2 February 1915, page


Kahanamoku, the famous Hawaiian cbampion, will arrive by the Sydney express on Friday, February 12.
He will be met at the station by the
committee of the Melbourne Swimming Club, and subsequently entertained at luncheon.
panying Kahanamoku will be G. Cunha, his swimming companion, who will compete in the various races.
Kahanamoku will make his first appear
ance in Melbourne on the following Saturday, when he will compete in the 100 yards championship of Victoria and other races.

Interest will he lent
to the íncctfmr by the annennmec of the New South Wales champions, A. W. lïuro*. T. Adrian, and Harold Hardwick, and other New South  Wales swimmers.
Kahanamoku will attack his KW-yimln
world's record, made in Sydney on January 2, at Hie City llaths, Swanston street, on Monday,
February 16.


The Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 3rd February 1915, page 7.


The hot weather of last week had its dire effects on surfers, especially on the younger members of Neptune's adopted family, who come down annually from the country to pay their visit to his watery realms.
Father Neptune and Father Sol had a merry time of it, and together they basted and grilled many a poor back to torture point.
Sunburn has been causing real suffering in the ranks of surfers.
Doctors have been called on to proscribe for bad cases, and the only alleviation of the pain is found in the fact that the doctor sometimes prescribes no school until the burn is off - and school began last week!
So a few more holidays are added to the already generous that, and the envy felt of "Grammar" and'"High" scholars, whose term began with the current month, is lessened along with the fiery pain of the sunburn, which just now is making many backs tingle.

Sunbasking is responsible for most of this excessively painful effect.
Some wise folk rather frown upon the basking, and declare that our youth, if they keep on at it, will develop into the bone-laziness of the Italian larzaroni, who literally bask in the sun as long as he is in the sky.
It cannot be denied that too much of the basking enervates the surfer, and seems to cause an evaporation of all the invigoration of the surf.
But, of course, a short spell and then a plunge back again into the briny curlers will never cease to charm, and, as long as the golden rule of moderation is observed, it may be used to add to the gloriously healthful result from the surfing.

In passing, I may note that surfing is more popular than ever.
Every season sees an increase in the numbers of the family, alluded to above, and this year promises to show the same rate of progress.
A proof of the benefit which all derive from surfing is shown in the number of middle-aged, and even elderly ladies who go in for it in zest.
Most readers were struck with this on seeing the account of a painful surfing-board accident recently, when the age of the victim was given as 60.
But this poor lady- whose leg was broken by a surf-board which a young man was using- is only one of many of that age, or thereabouts who take thelr daily plunge, and would miss it sorely if thelr annual month at Manly, or Coogee, or Bondi did not include that joy.
The effect is seen in the bright eye, alert glance, and happy expression of the bather.
"It does brighten one up wonderfully" is the general verdict, and the popularity of the sport increases.

Baskers are usually trying to acquire a lovely blown, and to help forward this desirable end they use cocoanut oil, which is about the best thing to employ to prevent painful sunburn.
But the oil should be applied first thing in the morning and last thing at night.
After the burn has become acute oil is useless.
The best remedy is hot water and boracic when the blisters break, which they should be encouraged to do, but not pricked.
The water should be as hot as it can be endured, and no clothing, except a thin shirt or blouse, should be allowed to touch the skin; legs and arms are better left bare, and it is usually here that is found the painful part.
Some cases are so bad that patients must remain in bed, there being a certain danger of blood-poisoning.
For ordinary tan and freckles, there are so many excellent face-creams and ointments now on sale at the chemist's that any special recipes of the old-fashioned, home-made type are not worth the trouble of making up.
A cream that is non-greasy should be chosen.

Surf-boards have evidently to be reckoned with nowadays, for nearly every small boy now rejoices on one.
Those most in use aré very small, some looking suspiciously like the kitchen chopping-board, which, no doubt will be found missing next time it is required in a hurry.
These small affairs really are only very slightly dangerous, being quite unlike the huge board made popular by the Hawaiian Duke.

Evening News
Sydney, Saturday 6 February 1915, page 7.

The Dee-why Surf Club held its second annual carnival this afternoon in dull and pleasant weather.
There were about two
The chief attraction was a display on a surf
board by Duke Kahanomoku, who performed all kinds of acrobatic feats on the board.
afterwards carried a lady passenger.
ther it was aniInteresting exhibition.
ther attractive feature was a hiunorout rro ctsslon, and 'Rickey's Hobos' provided a lot ot tun.
The march-past of the different surf
clubs was a fine sight.

North Sterne, t
(H. and r. NlehoUa), 1; Collaroy (N. Blaken and J. Bit), t. WWle the OanedlBS Highlanders wear kalis, and an «e tit, trcw, aad tarty as our own Hltnlaaosn, Mr IsOMaCt. It ntneh. What a reeepUen the* 'wlll h»re tow the Chan »»!. thaw lhtat ponfiaWoitlcM ot I'Sateete

915 'SURF CARNIVAL.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 6 February, p. 7, viewed 15 August, 2013,

The Maitland Daily Mercury
Monday 8 February 1915, page 5.


The great attraction at the Deewhy carnival on Saturday was Duke Kahanamoku, who went down to show the natives how to ride the surf board. Kahanamoku went out on it about a distance of half a mile.
denly he caught the breaker, and electrified the spectators by kneeling, standing, and upending himself on the board, finishing up by dive somersault when the breaker broke.
On one occasion he disappeared.
The famous
kept up these stunts for an hour and gave a great display.
For part of the time
, he was accompanied by Miss Letham, of Freshwater, an Australian swimmer.

On one occassion both swimmers stood riding the board for about two hundred yards. -

1915 'A FINE DISPLAY.', The Maitland Daily Mercury (NSW : 1894 - 1939), 8 February, p. 5, viewed 15 August, 2013,

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu February 12, 1915, page 12.


The work of the Mid-Pacific Magazine is getting recognition from magazine men and boosters of the mainland.
The following letter from Franklin Adams, editor of the Pan American Bulletin, shows the cooperation that the Mid-Pacific Magazine and the "Hands-Around-thePacific" movement are securing in influential quarters.

"My Dear Ford;
"I have been thinking that It would be a very good plan for us to publish, from month to month, under "Miscelanea," in the Spanish, Portuguese and French editions of the Bulletin, a little story dealing with some one of the countries on the other side of the Pacific.
We aim to make this miscellaneous material of real interest to our readers and as you possess some of the most attractive pictures that have ever been produced I am putting the matter, right up, to you.

We would like to have each month ssy, three or at the outside- four pictures, some of the most, unusal one, to run with a small amount of text.
I have in mind the surf-riding- pictures at Honolulu; then probably some New Zealand pictures; then on around the circuit.
We would give due credit to the Mid-Pacific Magazine for their use and see that they were returned just as soon as they left the presses; agreeing, also, to keep them in good condition.
Does the proposition appeal to you?"

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, February 12, 1915, 3:30 Edition, SPORTS, CLASSIFIED AND SHIPPING NEWS SECTION, Image 12

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, February 16, 1915, page 9.


The new directors of the Outrigger Canoe club met at dinner last night on the grounds at Waikiki to outline the work for the coming year.

In another week it is expected that all of the new buildings on the recently acquired property will be completed when there will be room enough for more than 600 members in the men's department.
It was decided last night that the new lanai overlooking the sea should be turned into a smoking room, so that now the women have their own exclusive lanai near the lagoon, while the  big hau tree lanai in the center of the grounds is the common meeting place for both men and women

It was, decided to enter canoes in the Carnfval water events.

As this meeting was devoted almost entirely to the proposed work of the  new house committee a speial meeting will be called before long to take  up active plans for canoeing and surfing during the coming year.

A sterilizing plant is to be placed on the grounds so that every towel and bathing suit as it is washed, will be sterilized.
The commissary and kitchen will be housed in one building, which closely adjoins the servants' quarters.

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The Riverine Grazier
Hay, NSW, 16 February, page 2.

The Australian ' Gazette,' which includes
Duke Kahanamoku winning the 100yds. swimming championship, will also be shown, while another special item is 'Wireless from the War.'

1915 'THE "GRAZIER'S" COUNTRY EDITION.', The Riverine Grazier (Hay, NSW : 1873 - 1954), 16 February, p. 2, viewed 30 Dec, 2014,

Sydney, Wednesday 17 February 1915, page 16

The Duke and His Comrades

'We have had a fine time in Australia,' said
Duke Kahanamoku, before leaving Sydney for Melbourne, 'though I may say that the programme has been almost too severe a tax upon us.
I do not say this in complaining spirit,
but to point out that we did not expect this tour of pleasure to be marked by such hard work.'
Nevertheless the Duke did not look as if he had wasted away, but frankly admitted that in the matter of weight he was all there.
'To judge by the programme I have seen, the task will be harder in New Zealand, where so much travelling will have to be done,' continued the Hawaiian.
 'I hope they will be able to make it a little less severe upon us over there'.
Yes, I know the climate in New Zealand is not so hot; but I do not mind the climate.'
The Duke looked very fit as he left for Melbourne.
He had just returned from the surf at Bondi, after some hard battles with the rough breakers, which, he explained, were vastly different from those of his beloved Honolulu, which roll in with a long, steady, sweeping roll.
The Duke likes the surf play here; though it is different from cavorting on the waves at Honolulu.
The Duke and his companions will take away with them souvenirs of their visit in the shape of albums, containing photographs of scenes and races in which they have figured.
These will include the principal photographs which have appeared in 'The Referee.'
 He also takes all copies of this paper dealing with his visit to Australia, a fact which shows that the visit will rank as no mere passing hour in the life of the world's champion sprinter.
The Hawaiians will return to Sydney to-morrow, and leave for New Zealand on Friday.


1915 'The Duke and His Comrades', Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), 17 February, p. 16. , viewed 22 Apr 2016,

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, February 22, 1915, page 4.


Arts and Crafts Shop.
Here are beautiful pictures of Hawaii on-green and yellow crepe paper.
Royal palms, ilce fields, surf riding and many other lsland scenes and industries are exhibited.

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The Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 24 February 1915, page 12.


Last Saturday Neil Peter Nielson, 27, was drowned near North Steyne, Manly, through being caught in the undertow.
At an inquiry held on Tuesday by the City Coroner, Alfred Ferns, 10, stated that he and Nielsen were bathing together.
The former was carried out about 200 yards, and the boy says that he went out and tired to save him.
Messrs. Claude West and Williams went out with a line, and brought the man and the boy in.
The boy was all right, but Nielson did not recover consciousness.
A verdict of accidental death was returned.
At the request of the relations of the deceased, further evidence as to the accident will be taken on Thursday.

Evening News
Sydney, Tuesday 23 February 1915, page 3.


An unusual story was told to the City Coroner (Mr. Hawkins) this morning, when he held an inquiry into the death of Niel Peter Nielsen, 27, a single man. 
lfred Ferns, a 10-year-old schoolboy, who lives at Queenscliffe, Manly, said that on Friday afternoon he was in the water at North
Steyne, when a wave knocked him over, and carried him out.
He called for help, and Niel
sen assisted him out of the water.
wards they sat on the sand out of the water for about five minutes.
Nielsen went into the
surf again, and called out.
Witness went to
the spot, and saw him an the bottom in about four feet of water.
Bubbles were coming up,
and witness held Nielsen's head up until compelled to let go, because he had hurt his wrist.
Witness then tried to hold him up by the cos
The life-savers afterwards came out,
and both were brought ashore.
At the time
they were 200 yards out, and the breakers were fairly big.
Claude Leslie West, a clerk residing at 22 Australia-street, Manly, stated that when he heard someone was in trouble in the water he ran along the beach with the reel, and a man named Williams took the belt out, witness going out as support.
A little boy and man were
in the water, the former appearing to be on top of the water, and the man under it.
liams grabbed the boy just as be was going under, and the man came to the top.
was just going under again, when witness got hold of him.
The suction of a wave carried
witness and Nielsen ashore.
 Efforts were
made to revive Nielsen without success.
was 400 yards away from the ordinary swimming place where the accident happened, and there were notices warning people not to bathe al the spot.
The water was over witness'
head where Nielsen was recovered.
Rita Gladys Nielsen, deceased sister-in-law,
gave evidence that he was lame, and a very strong swimmer.
It was stated that a man named Collins had
seen Nielsen and the boy struggling in the water for ten minutes before assistance was rendered, and the Coroner adjourned the inquiry until Thursday, in order that Collins could be called as a witness.


1915 'A CRIPPLE AND A BOY.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 23 February, p. 3, viewed 19 October, 2014,

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, March 2, 1915, page 9.


John Henry, the Washington catcher who was here with the All-Americans last December, took more than an average interest in local baseball conditions  and when he returned to the mainland he was in a position to write and tell a lot about the game in Hawaii.
The following notes on Island baseball appear in Boston Herald of recent date:

Catcher Washington Baseball Club

Islanders Great Hosts
May I say a few words here to give an Idea of the appreciative way in which the people of Honolulu enter tained us during our all-to-short; two weeks there.
The native Hawaiian men took nearly all our party out surf riding in outrigger canoes and some of the party tried the surf-board riding by the help of the natives.
This was a fine afternoon's sport after which we sat down to the native feast consisting of pigs roasted in the ground Hawaiian style, sweet potatoes and poi, the native food, with many other native dishes.

Chronicling America
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Clarence and Richmond Examiner, Grafton.
Tuesday 9 March 1915, page 7.
Molloy's Movies.
(Theatre Royal, Grafton)

The Australian Gazette is full of interesting events, and is bound to be popular.
The great swimmer Kahamanoka will also be seen at a surf carnival giving an exhibition on the surf board.

1915 'AMUSEMENTS.', Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915), 9 March, p. 7, viewed 4 June, 2012,

Unfortunately, the film is apparently now lost, see:
Australian Screen - Australasia Gazette

The Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser
Wednesday 10 March 1915 page 2.


The usual monthly meeting of the
above was held on Wednesday last, when the following were present:-. Messrs. :W. F: Cocks, (presiding), ,Wil. kinson, G. Tory, M,. R. Ryan, .W,. Farqulhalon and P. Walker. Owing,, to his doparture from the. districti Mr. J. H. Saunders's resignation as committeeman was received with regret, and on the motion of Messrs. Walker and Tory, it was decided to recognise in some way, the valuable assistance he had rendered the cllub.
The beach inspectors reported on
the constant use of surf boards by certain bathers notwithstanding being warned on several occasions to the contrary.
It was decided after discussion; that if the practice is persisted in, the inspectors report the offenders to the Municipal Council.

1915 'KIAMA SURF CLUB.', The Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser (NSW : 1863 - 1947), 10 March, p. 2,
 viewed 15 August, 2013,

The Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser
Saturday 13 March 1915, page 3.


The war special included in to-night's
progamme at the pictures is entitled "With the British and French in Flanders."
The feature film, "A man 'for
a that," is described as one of infinite charms, with a very human story in it.
A good list of comic and com
edy items will also be screened.
Next Tuesday, "Dolly of the Dailies,"
festuring Miss MaryFuller, will be commenced, tIhe first two parts being shown that night, the 3rd on the 23rd March, the 4th on Saturday, April  rd, and the remaining eight, on each Saturday night.
This serial, we are in
formed is extra to the usual programme, and will not take the place of the Star Picture.
In, the programme
will be included another exceptionally interesting Australian Gazette, amongst other things showing champion motor boat races in Melbourne, Miss Fanny Durack, the Australian Lady swimmner, lowering a world's record, the surf carnival at Dee Why, (Sydney), and Kahanamoku giving an exhibition on the surf board.
The Star
picture is entitled, "The Masqueraders," and there will also be another Vitagraph, (A Lucky Elopement) and a screaming Keystone Comedy, (His Talented Wife.)

1915 'THE PICTURES.', The Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser (NSW : 1863 - 1947), 13 March, p. 3, viewed 15 August, 2013,

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, March 13, 1915, page 14.

Tales Out of School

Honolulu, March 8.
I must tell you, Polly, of two little girls who interest me greatly, as I really believe that they are the coming, champions in swimming and  anything aquatic.
The other mermaids are already keeping shy of the beach when Sue Alston MacDonald and Esther Hall are there, for there is not a
thing they will not attempt - They swim the crawl stroke, do all sorts of diving and stand on the surf board.
It is a pleasure to watch them.

Speaking of  diving reminds me there is a young Punahou Academy girl who is quite the rage in diving, in fact she often attracts an admiring audience when she is doing some of her graceful stunts on the stand before the Outrigger Canoe Club.
A fraction of this audience practises the dives early every morning so that he may perform in her presence in the afternoon.
She dives better than a great many of the men.
If there is any interscholastic competition this year such as there was last year the girl will carry off the honors.

Chronicling America
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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, March 15, 1915, page 6.


The first freighter to call at Honolulu in more than a year flying the five-starred pennant of the Australian commonwealth came into the harbor when the steamer Werribee was brought to the Inter-Island Steam Navigation buskers to discharge 4177 ton of coal.

Capt L. Thompson last visited the islands ten years ago.
Today he found a totally different city.
He was much impressed at the facilities offered at the port for the speedy handling of coal front ship to shore.
He brought news that Duke Kahanamoku sweeping everything before him in the series of swimming contests in the Australian cities.
The Werribee is owned at Melbourne.
It steamed from Newcastle, N. S. W., Febuary, 20, taking 23 days to complete the voyage.

Chronicling America
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Examiner , Launceston.
Tasmania, Tuesday 16 March 1915, page 6.


Spencers are maintaining their reputation for high-class programmes.
At the Princess Theatre the new bill presented last evening embraces some very fine subjects.
The feature of them is the Spencer exclusive art film, "The Children of Captain Grant," adapted from Jules Verne's great story.
It is 5000 feet in length, and is shown in seven parts.
The story deals with an expedition which has associated with it many adventures, earthquakes, escapes from death, the taking of a child into the air by a condor, and other sensational events.
It is a highly interesting production.
"The Unknown Country" is another drama of much merit.
It featured happenings of an entertaining and thrilling character.
A war topical subject which is more than usually attractive is "With the Belgians in Action," while the picture "Bully Boy" depicts the No. 4 series of war cartoons which have been cleverly executed.
The only humorous feature is "Biff! Bangl Wallop!" an amusing item.
The "Australian Gazette" embraces the following topical subjects:- Sydney- Delfosse Badgery, the Australian aviator, does some most sensational flying at Victoria Park, including bomb-dropping. Melbourne- The state championship carnival; Duke Kahanamoku gives exhibitions on the surf board; and cartoons by Harry Julius, which form an entertainment by themselves.
The new programme will be repeated this evening, and finally to morrow night.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 17 March 1915, page 8.


Last Saturday at the Freshwater Club's Carnival the club won Mr. Arthur Griffith's trophy for the 1000 yards surf relay race.
This was the second consecutive win.
The race was won fairly easily, and as all the members are young, the prospect for future years seem very bright.
Manly also gathered the senior and novice alarm reel races.
The display given by T. Walker on a "Duke" surf board was very good indeed.
The canoe and surf boat competitions provided some good exhibitions.

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu March 22, 1915, page 3.


The management of the Mid-Pacific Magazine announces that from now on this interesting journal will go in actively, for home promotion work.
Following out this policy the best three articles in the April number are by youths of Hawaii between 14 and 17 years of age.

The Mid-Pacific Magazine is seeking to train the young men of Hawaii to write about Hawaii.
The leading article is by Lorrin P. Thurston, on the subject of surfboard riding in Hawaii.
Young Thurston is atm at Punahou Academy, yet, Jack London, who is an authority says this is the best article that has yet been
written, on-surf-rlding.
It took A. H. Ford, the editor of the Mid-Pacific Magazine, some months , to persuade young Thurston to write what he knew about surf-riding, but so excellent was the result that during his Christmas holidays he was given a position on one of the daily papers.
The article itself, now in print for the first time, is illustrated with, both, halftones and color cuts of surfboard riding at Waikiki.
The most interesting page in the magazine, for April, however, is that on which is announced the fact that with the next number of the magazine will begin the publication of the "Log of the Snark," appearing in print, for the first time.
This will be continued from month to month, as will be a series of Hawaiian-South Sea, articles from the pen of Jack London.

Chronicling America
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Saturday Referee and the Arrow
Sydney, Saturday 20 March 1915,
page 1.

'You are a well-browned healthy-looldnx Io» ? of fellows. You appear to have been enjoying yourselves. But what brings you to this un frequented spot ? Why don't you bathe nearer home ? ' 'For the simple reason we would be 'run ioT if we were caught in the act. The law pro hibits bathing on the ocean beaches after Z o'clock.' The conversation above related took place at Freshwater about 14 years ago, before that lo cality bore signs of human habitation, and

when to enter the breakers in broad daylight was a punishable offence. Frank Bell, of Manly, who happened to bo one of the persons addressed, informs me that he and a few friends had just been flagrantly; flouting the law in this manner when they wero accosted by a stranger. The explanation tend ered as to why it wa3 necessary to hide from the vigilance of the guardians of public mora lity at once aroused the indignation of their interlocutor. He immediately proceeded to denounce tho short-sightedness of the restriction that pre vented people indulging at any hour of the day in a recreation whose beneficial eflects wcrr so obvious. Then, as if an inspiration had sud denly possessed him, he pictured the good that would inevitably accrue, if the public, particu larly that section represented by the pcrrpir ing occupants of the city, were educated up to an adequate appreciation of their glorious heri tage, and an agitation were successful in caus ing the removal of the obstacles that barred the full enjoyment of the natural advantages. CO-OPERATION OF THE PRESS. Bell, together -vich a small coterie of village enthusiasts, had, for some time prior to the aate referred to. been in the habit of migrating at every opportunity to Freshwater, which was regarded as an cut-of-the-way pine? in those
days, so that they might pursue their lawless practices with little icar ot detection. Shortly alter the incident mentioned occurred. Bell re counts that an article appeared in a district pub lication, designated the 'North Sydney News,' from the pen of the proprietor, Mr. W. H. Gotcher, pointing out that our sandy ocean stretches constituted a priceless asset, and ad vocating their utilisation for the purpose of- all- day surf bathing. In this way was revealed the identity of the individual who had dis turbed the surfers at their favorite haunt. The suggestion was so far in advance of cur rent ideas that the proposal was regarded as preposterous, but succeeding issues of the same paper, however, contained more glowing refer ences to the subject. By degrees, converts were obtained, and the ground prepared for the final assault on the barriers of narrow conservatism that strenuously opposed the granting of the privilege. With the assistance of Mr. Frank Donovan and other men of %igorous speech and action, the ineffectiveness of the restrictive regulations was demonstrated by open defiance, Gotcher incurring the risk of imprisonment in the maintenance of what he claimed to be the just rights of the people. Manly being the scene ot the historic hap penings. As soon a? the freedom of the surf was pro claimed, Gotcher's ;:icd ctions were fulfilled to the letter, and the por-ularity of surf bathing spread with the rapidity of a prairie fire, villages subsequently springing up like mushrooms along the coast wherever facilities for its practise where obtainable. And yet the Manly L.S. Club is the only one that has, so far, paid Gotcher a tribute for the part he played, by electing him a vice-president. Such is gratitude.

The display board riding
on the 'Duke' boards given by Tommy Walker and Co. considerably surprised the surfers, particularly the visitors.
Walker succeeded in
getting upright a number of' times, and on one occasion came in a good way standing on his head.
The exhibition was thought so much of that the exponents have been requested to repeat the performance at Bondi this afternoon.

1915 'BIGGEST SURF CARNIVAL IN HISTORY OF THE SPORT.', Saturday Referee and the Arrow (Sydney, NSW : 1912 - 1916), 20 March, p. 1, viewed 6 April, 2014,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 24 March 1915, page 8.


No fewer than six carnivals were held during the week, and as in the majority of instances the weather was not suitable, a test was placed on tbe enthusiasm of the followers, with satisfactory results.
Particularly was this tbe case at the Surf Bathing Association's gala at Bondi Beach last Saturday, when,  besides the cold, the spectators and performers suffered much discomfort by the sand being carried by the southerly into their faces.
However, a large crowd remained in attendance until the end of what was a far too lengthy progrnmme.
But for forfeits in some of the events and a cancellation, the sports would not have concluded until too late.
The contests proved most interesting, and if a third ot the items had been eliminated the whole function would have been more enjoyable.
Several of tbe beltmen and swimmers were quick to see the effect of the current sweeping from north to south, and make good use of it, but others made poor attempts.
The pennant teams were the exception, and a close contest between Bondi, Cook's Hill, and Coogee showed all the men alive to the advantages and disadvantages in the weather.
Bondi were just a little ahead of Cook's Hill in their water work, while the resuscitation was very even.
The introduction of a surf board exhibition during the latter competition was a good move, and brought out three very fine exponents.

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu March 31, 1915, page 2.

Sergeant Promoted to Job Vacated By Officer to Escape Facing Charges

Frederick H. laukea, for years identified with the police department, who has won promotion from roundsman and clerk to first-class sergeant, will tomorrow morning don the star of captain of police, taking over the position vacated by the resignation of Captain Duke Kahanamoku.
The sherriffi this morning received and immediately accepted tne resignation of captain Kahanamoku as a police officer.

Kahanamoku was charged with conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman.
Investigation of charges had reached a stage where the officer volunteered his resignation rather than
face a civil service hearing of a series of allegations filed with the sheriff.

Captain Kahanamoku asked to be relieved from firther duty," said Sheriff Rose today.
"About all I have to say is that I have accepted his resignation
As far as I known, any charges that may have been filed against the officer in the department has been dropped.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, April 3, 1915, page 21.

Typical Island Scenes Shown; Singing Boys Dispense Music to Large Crowds Daily


Surf-riders in Statuary.

Passing out at the opposite side of the aquarium, one pauses to rest on a seat at the base of a wonderfully beautiful group of surf-riders by Mr. Gordon Osborne.
This group, done in brown clay, represents three figures gracefully balanced and poised on surf-boards, their hair blown by the  wind,  their arms charmingly out stretched, a happy radiance to their faces.
Two children have fallen into the billowy sea and their happy faces smile upward toward the riders more fortunate than they.
This is a group of which Hawaii may well be proud.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
April 5, 1915, page 3.

Kahanamoku and Cunha Praise Sportsmanship and Methods of Southern Clubs.

Duke Kahanamoku and George Cunha, Hawaii's speediest sprint swimmers, and Francis Evans, were returning passengers from Australia in the steamer Niagara yesterday.
Kahanamcku and Cunha went against the best men in the Southland with uniform success, while Evans acted as manager of the trip, and looked after the business end.
The trio left here November 30, being absent from Hawaii a few days over four months, during which time they visited all the large cities of Australia and New Zealand, and had an exceptional opportunity to get in close touch with Antipodean sport.

Champion Duke has nothing but praise for the treatment received in Australia, though on a number of occasions he was handicapped so heavily that he had no chance to win his events.
However the big Hawaiian says that was due to the belief on the part of the handicappers that he was consistently many seconds better than most of their own men.
"Their handicapping system is a fine thing for the younger swimmers and ought to be worked up in Hawaii," said Duke, today.
"It gives the new fellows a chance and makes the old fellows swim their best to win."

Campaign a Hard One.

Duke found the campaign a hard one physically and comes back five pounds under his usual swimming weight.
Traveling a good deal, kept up night after night by the evening swimming tournaments which are the usual thing in Australia, and with constant changes of food and water, he felt the strain of competition to an unusual extent.

"Great," said George Cunha this morning, when asked about the trip.
"We had such a good time that I don't know where to begin to talk about it
We did a lot of swimming, and as for seeing the country and meeting the people, why we had so many invitations that we had to refuse a lot of them.
It has been a trip that we'l never forget and never regret."

Kahanamoku established a new world's record for the 100-yard swim. of 53 4-5 seconds; Cunha made an Australasian record of 63 3-5 sees, for the 100 meters.
Duke is credited by the newspapers also with a new world's record for 50 yards, of 22 3-5 seconds, made at Auckland, N. Z., in a handicap race March 13, but whether this will stand is doubtful.
There seems to have been a mix-up in the timing, and whether the announced time will be declared official or not is a matter of conjecture.
The race was won by Cunha in 25 seconds flat, he having a handicap of 3 seconds over Duke, who was scratch.
Most of the watches caught Duke at 24 flat.

Difference in Stroke.

According to the returned swimmers, great interest was shown in the events in which the Hawaiian speed merchants took part.
The first night at the Domain baths, in Sydney, the paid admissions were about $3250, which was high mark for the trip.
"There is a decided difference between the stroke we use here and the Australian crawl," said Cunha, in reply to a query as to relative swimming styles, "Down there they time their kick with their arm movement instead of making the two independent ...

They claim that our stroke is the harder, and, we found it the other way around.: l guess it's just a matter of what you're used to.
Some of the kids down there have already picked up the Hawaiian stroke and seem to be doing well at it".

"It would be impossible to give visitors better treatment than we received," said Evans.
"They are the squarest sportsmen in the world, Australians and New Zealanders, and we haven't a single unpleasant criticism to make.
It's too bad that Duke and Longworth couldn't hook up for the 220 and 440, but Longworth was sick when they were supposed to have come together, and we traveled around so much that we couldn't make connections afterwards.
In the first  meeting Duke won the hundred easily, Longworth being fourth.
Longworth then went into the half mile, and after that he was taken sick, and couldn't get into the 220.
He was as anxious as anyone to meet Duke, but the doctors wouldn't hear of his competing.

"Talk about hospitality," continued Evans.
"We must have traveled 20,000 miles, and the only distance we did under our own motive power was in the water.
It was automobiles, trains, steamers and launches all the time. No chance to walk at all."

Surfboarding was a big hit in allparts of the southern continent.
At first Australians inclined to the belief that pictures of Hawaiians standing up on a board were "doctored" and it took a few demonstrations by the local bovs to convince them.
Then they went wild over the sport.

According to the local men, Australian swimming authorities are most anxious to have a Hawaiian team of five or six men go down for a series of meetings next year.
Team matches and relay races are favorite events in Kangarooland, and in the opinion of the Hawaiian trio a team from here could more than hold its own with anything that could be put against it down there.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, April 8, 1915, page 9.


Left to right, the men in the picture are Francis Evans (manager), Duke Kahanamoku and George Cunha.
This trio, which has just returned from a grand swimming tour of Austra lia and New Zealand, has nothing but praise for the southern continent.
Besides returning as boosters, they bring back some excellent ideas for putting swimming here on a substantial and well organized basis.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, April 8, 1915, page 7.


Each and every country of the Pacific will be represented this afternoon at Waikiki when Jack London and Fletcher S. . Brockman will be the guests of Alexander Hume Ford and the Mid-Pacific Magazine in the big canoes of the Outrigger Club.
To meet them has been invited one long time residents of each Pacific land and after the surf-riding is over, about twenty of these will meet together in the new lanai of the Outrigger Club and over their poi-bowls discuss with Mr. Brockman concrete plans for firmly establishing Honolulu as a publicity and commercial clearing house for the whole Pacific.

This work is beiig undertaken around the Pacific and Hawaii by the Hands-Around-the-Paciflc movement, and concrete ideas will be gathered tonight from the following participants in the movement, who were either born or have lived for a number of years in the countries for which they are asked to speak:
Harry L. Otrango, Alaska; Clinton G. Ballentyne, Canada; Riley H. Allen, Washington State and the Pacific Northwest: G. H. Tuttle, California; W. D. Westervelt, Mexico; Thos. P. Sedgwick, Peru and South America; L. A. Thurston, Hawaii; A. U C. Atkinson, Russian Asia; Dr. Doremus Scudder, Japan; J. W. Wadman, Korea; Lorrin Andrews, Shanghai and China; W. H. Babbitt, the Philippines; Algeron Halls, Australia; C. F. Maxwell, New Zealand; H. A. Kearns, Fiji and the South Seas.

If the Honolulu president of the Hands-Around-the-Paciflc Club, ex-Governor Walter F. Frear, is physically able to be present, will preside at the meeting.
This will be the first of a series of Pan-American gatherings which the Mid-Pacific Magazine is promoting to further the interests of Hawaii as a clearing house of Pacific effort.

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Santa Cruz Evening News
Volume 15, Number 117, 9 April 1915, page 7.

Dorothy Becker Beats Fast Rival In Mid-Pacific Race

Miss Dorothy Becker riding a surf board at Honolulu, a feat rarely accomplished by any except the native Kanakas.

HONOLULU, Hawaii, April 9.
Although the race was admittedly unsatisfactory to its contestants, the fifty-yard swimming dash for the fastest woman sprinters of the Pacific was won here, during the Mid-Pacific carnival by Dorothy Becker of San Francisco in 35 1-5 seconds.
Ruth Stacker, an Hawaiian, and Miss Decker's keenest rival, finished second.

The slow time and a subsequent  controversy between partisans of the two swimmers resulted from the inadvertent crossing of Miss Stacker from her own swimming lane to that of Miss Becker's, so that both became confused, stopping at the forty yard line.
Shouts from bystanders spurred them on again, and the Becker girl finished a few feet in advance, fighting for the lead.

Timers declared afterward that but for the stop at the forty-yard line, Miss Becker would probably have finished in 29 or 30 or seconds, a decided record.
In view of the circumstances, both swimmers want to race again, since neither feels that her abilities wore fully displayed.
Two other Honoluluans, Miss Lucille Legros and Benitta Lane, contested, finishing third and fourth respectively.
Miss Becker came here particularly
to try her speed against Miss Stacker.
Santa Cruz Evening News
Volume 15, Number 117, 9 April 1915, page 7.
Also see:
Thomas Hickenbottom: Surfing in Santa Cruz (2009) pages 9 and 12.

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
April 9, 1915, page 9.


Duke Kahanamoku. the great swimmer, and Hackenscnmidt, the Russian wrestler, both claim that a great deal of their physical perfection is due to sleeping on hard boards with but scant covering.
At that rate a lot of our gobs who can sleep soundly on the declr almost any time, with a pair of shoes in a ditty box for a pillow, ought to make good athletes.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, April 10, 1915, page 9.


Here's a picture of Duke Kahanamoku, taken in the Domain Baths, Sydney, where he established a new world's record for the 100 yards.
Needless to say, Duke didn't break any records with the craft in which the camera caught him.
Kahanamoku, Cunha and Evans are still talking of their trip to the antipodes, and telling their friends what royal sportsmen the Australians are.
The two crack swimmers are taking a lay-off just now, but before long they will to think of the swimming events at the Exposition, to which Hawaii is expected to send a team.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, April 12, 1915, pages 3 and 12.


- JAY URICE: I don't mind doing promotion work, but I object to getting sunburned teaching surf-riding to tourists.
- DUKE KAHANAMOKU: There certainly are some pretty Maori maids over in Australia; and lots or them have money to burn, but I didn't pick one out because I was afraid she'd make me stay in that country.
Australia is a fine land and its people are mighty nice, but I'll never make my home anywhere but here.

Page 12


House and Senate Leaders Coming to Conclusion Only Health Committee of Two Branches Should
Make Biennial Trip to Leper Settlement - Governor, Mayor, Berger's Band, Duke Kahanamoku, Jr.,
and Many Special" Visitors on Week-end - Visit Petitions and Complaints Given Full Hearing

Accompanied by Governor Pinkham, Mayor Lane, the Royal Hawaiian band and Duke Kahanamoku. the members of the legislature paid their usual biennial visit to the leper settlement on Molokai last Saturday, making the journey in the specially chartered, vessel Mauna Loa.
Contrary to custom the visit this time was not made on Sunday, the legislature adjourning Friday afternoon until this morning.

Of the more than 100 persons in the junketing party not more than 25 were actual members of the lawmaking body- about 20 members of the house and five senators.
The Mauna Loa left Honololu at midnight arriving off Kalannapa at daylight the next morning.
Because of the high surf no landing could be made in the small boats and after 8 o'clock even then the task of getting ashore was a somewhat risky undertaking, carrying a degree of danger that thrilled the adventurers.
But all save Representative Crocket took the chance and reached land without untoward incident.
Crockett frankly declared the thing did not look good to him, and he remained aboard tbe Manna Loa, not setting foot on the island.

Trip to Brother Dutton's Home.

The majbrity of the legislators witn the committee clerks and officials and special guests at once started on Ihe jaunt across the narrow peninsula on horseback and in the one carryall for Kalawao, the large village on the windward side of the island, where the Baldwin home and the headquarters of Brother Dutton are located.
The visit was finished and the party had ridden the three miles back to Kalaupapa before noon.
At the latter place, from the time of its arrival, Capt. Berger's band had given the people a continual musical entertainment from the village bandstand.
Tarry Wile (sic, ?), and the music paused only daring the noon luncheon hour and the speech-making which followed.
At noon the visitors partook of an excellent luau prepared in their honor at the home of Superintendent Jack McVeigh, at long tables set in the yard under a canvas canopy, entertained the while by the wonderfully sweet singing of a chorus of men and women of the colony, led by a big, brawny, sightless young fellow who once was a member of the Honolulu police force.

The population of the settlement was reported by. Superintendent McVeigh to be as follows: 745; divided patients, 633; male, 387, and female, 246; kokuas (supporters), 25 males and 15 females; not patients, 28 males and 23 females; non-leprous children, 9 males and 11 females.
On the recommendation of GovernorPinkham the supply of saddle horses will be cut down to a few for each patient that more cattle may be given pasturage.

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Santa Cruz Evening News
Volume 15, Number 120, 13 April 1915, page 3.


MISS DOROTHY BECKER, fleetest and youngest mermaid of the west, riding head down on a surfboard in Honolulu harbor, where she competed in the Mid-Pacific Carnival swimming events, beating Ruth Stacker, queen of the Southern seas.
It is said that only two expert Kanaka surf riders excel Miss Becker in this difficult sport, although she has had but a week's practice.
Santa Cruz Evening News
Volume 15, Number 120, 13 April 1915, page 3.

The Day Book.
Chicago, April 14, 1915, page 11.


Miss Dorothy Becker Riding a Surf Board at Honolulu,

a Feat Rarely Accomplished by Any Except Native Kanakas.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, April 16, 1915, page 5.


Jack London and Alexander Hume Ford acted as guests to the Japanese and Americans who came early and enjoyed the surf riding in the canoes provided by the junior members of the Outrigger Club, who by the way have taken enthusiastically to the idea of helping to entertain the fathers of the boys of many nationalities with whom they play baseball.
Frank C. Atherton and Harry L. Strange were appointed a committee to confer with Secretary Thayer and to arrange with the Outrigger Club for an afternoon of water sports for the visitors  to wind up with a Hands-Around-the-Pacific luau on the grounds, at which there would be a speaker from each of the country about the Pacific to tell the national lawmakers something of the new Pacific patriotism, and to hear from them what in their opinion the various races of Hawaii can do to bring the whole Pacific into a friendly relationship and united work.

Page 9

Chicago Officials Overlooked Mark of 53 4-5 Seconds Made at Sydney

ASSOCIATED PRESS dispatches from Chicago last night stated that the world's record for the 100-yard swim had been broken by A. C. Raithel of the Illinois Athletic Club, who covered the distance in 54 3-5 seconds, one-fifth of a second faster than Duke Kahanamoku's best mark, according to the Chicago report.

The world's record for the century swim is 53 4-5 seconds, made by Duke Kahanamoku at the Domain Baths, Sydney, January 2 of this year.
No doubt has been cast on the authenticity of this record, and news papers throughout the United States generally printed it as a new world's mark when it was flashed out by the cable.
The Australian system of timing is most thorough and complete, and the officials of the championship meets over there certainly know their business.
The meet at Sydney was a championship affair, and the mark made by the Hawaiian swimmer is most unquestionably a real world's record.
Possibly the Chicago officials are mixing A. A. U. and world's records when they claim a new mark for Raithel.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, April 17, 1915, page 14.

Society Personals
Word has been received from Mr. Harold Brewer, who was one of the popular school teachers at Mill's Institute, from Paauhau plantation, where he is permanently located.
Mr. Brewer is enraptured with Hawaii and its beauty, though he misses Honolulu and the surf.
He was an adept at surf riding.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, April 20, 1915, page 12.


In the May Mid-Pacific Magazine, on the newsstands today, begins the story of Jack London's cruise around the Pacific on the Snark.
Never before has this tale of his wife, Charmian Kittredge London, been published and it throws side-lights on the famous author that are interesting in the extreme.
The first instalment tells of the building of the Snark and of her trip to Hawaii.
Both the Londons are now regular contributors to the pages of the Mid-Pacific Magazine and are deeply interested in its work of creating a patriotism of the Pacific.
The May number is filled with articles from around the Pacific, among which are the following:

Hawaiian Views for Mid-Pacific Readers; The Log of the Snark, by Charmian Kittredge London; New Zealand, Mistress of the Pacific, by Sir James Mills, K. C. M. C; A Day at Myajiraa, by Alexander Hume Ford; The Psychology of the Surfboard, by Jack London; What a New Zealander Thinks of Sydney, by Thomas L. Mills; Blackbirding Days, by C. F. Maxwell; Tragedies of the Maui Mountains, by C. W. Baldwin; Motoring in Java, by Teda Kapong; Sight Seeing in Seattle, by H. H. Mattison; Pottering Around Perth, by Joseph B. Stiekney: People of the Philippines, by Dr. Merton Miller; Capt. Cook's Monument on Hawaii, by Thomas G. Thrum; From Macao to Canton, by Oscar Vojnich; Rounding the Horn, by C. F. Merrill; A Forgotten Corner of Kauai, by J. M. Lydgate.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, April 24, 1915, 3:30 Edition, page 9.

Depends on Expense Allowance Whether Local Swimmers Will Go to Exposition

Whether an All-Hawaii swimming team, with Duke Kahanamoku and George Cunha as headliners, will take part in the exposition water meet next July, depends on just one thing; funds.
Communications are now being exchanged on this subject between local swimming authorities and the San Francisco officials and it is hoped that satisfactory arrangements can be completed.

"It all depends on what the fair people can do for us in the way of expense money," said V. T. Rawlins, president of the Hui Nalu and Hawaii's chief swimming booster.
"The exposition meet will be held in July, and we certainly hope to send an AllHawaii team to compete."

San Francisco keeps a close watch on Hawaii swimmers, and their doings are pretty freely chronicled and commented on.
William Unmack, the swimming, expert of the San Francisco Call, recently devoted about a column to the performances of Kahanamoku and Miss Ruth Blacker.
Here are the comments:

Date, March 13; event, 50 yards; straightaway course; place, Auckland, N. Z.; winner, Duke Kahanamoku; time, 22 3-6 seconds a new world's record.

This is the news received here yesterday from the antipodes.
It proves that the mighty Duke is still the greatest of them all - and instead of going back he is smashing records galore.
The Duke's' trio, through Australia and New Zealand has been one great series of winning races and eradicating records.
His latest record for the fifty beats his own former record of 23 2-5 seconds by four-fifths of a second, a remarkable cut from a
world's mark.

The breaking official records by such a large margin brings to mind the time when Duke first sprang into the limelight at Honolulu, in 1910, when he clipped more than a second off  the  world's mark.
Proper application blanks were made out for the record and sent to New York, but Duke's anounced time was scoffed at by Eastern officials and even the late James E. Sullivan raised his eyebrows and whistled when he read the time.
He wrote to Rawlins of Honolulu and asked for further particulars, but all the particulars had been given.
Still the big chief was not quite satisfied and could not credit such a performance and in writing to Rawlins later he said: "World's records are broken by fractions of seconds and not by more than a full second."

Rawlins bided his time, put Duke on a steamer for San Francisco and shot him overland to New York and eastern cities.
The first night Duke collapsed in the 220 national championship.
He bad never been in a small enclosed tank and was not used to the fresh water which almost choked him when he tried to turn. The next morning Duke went into the tank and trained all morning on the turns.
That night he came out and won the 100 so easily that the East gasped again.
Since then he has been doing nothing else but break records.

Speaking of records calls to mind that, the Honolulu papers have been discussing th matter of records and give Dorothy Becker the credit of holding the American record for 50 yards.
Under A. A. U. rules Dorothy Becker did hold the record with 35 3-5 seconds, but she does not hold it now, the A. A. U. time being held by a local girl, Frances Lyons Cowells. with 34 4-5 seconds, application for which has reached the hands of the local records committee and will be forwarded to New York.

Dorothy Becker made her time in an unsatisfactory race at Honolulu in February, when she was given a decision over Miss Ruth Stacker, the Hawaiian champion.
Frances Cowells made her time in a meet at Alameda two weeks ago, and won with ease.
She has shown considerably better than 33 in training.

When the Hawaiian girl made her record girl swimmers were not recognized by the A. A. U- but the time was legitimate in every respect and stands today as the fastest fifty yards ever swum in this country by any girl, though officially in the A. A. U. record
lists Ruth will not be given credit for the mark.
She is an ambitious girl, however, and is anxious to set the record, which she can secure if she is fast enough to beat Frances Cowells, who will be able to show far more speed inside two or three months, when Miss Stacker is expected here to race her.

Miss Stacker is a remarkable swimmer and holds, many other unofficial records, though her mark of 7 minutes 8 seconds for the 440 yard event, made at Honolulu in February, is an official American record for girls, and has not been approached in competition anywhere in the country.

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The Maui News.
Wailuku, Maui, April 24, 1915, page 1.

Kahanamoku at Puunene.

Thursday evening has been set apart for a visit to Puunene and here, also a committee composed of Wm. Searby, J. W. Thomson, and C. C. Campbell is planning to exhibit the great and only Duke Kahanamoku in action in the Puunene Athletic Club's big tank, in competition with some of Hawaii's lesser lights.
The evening ...
(Continued on Page 3.)

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The Herald and News.
Newberry, South Carolina, May 7, 1915, page 6.

Skiing on the Water.

The ski is recommended as both a life saving device and a pleasure craft, combining safety with novelty.
It cannot sink, makes better speed than a swimmer and does not tire the rider as swimming does.
It is more practicable for long distances and can go through water where there is a heavy undertow, as it sits so high in the water that it is not caught in the grip of the undercurrent as the legs of the swimmer are.
It doesn't take a long time to master, as the surf board does; requires no skill in balancing and sticking on and has the great advantage of being equipped with a motive power, whereas the ordinary surf board must be pushed and paddled out to sea before it can be ridden in.
- Outing.

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The Maui News.
Wailuku, May 8, 1915, page 1.

Local People on Lusitania

Friends of Miss Marget Jones who is well known in Maul where she visited a few months ago, are much concerned over the news of the sinking of the Lusitania, for Miss Jones is understood to have been a passenger on that ill-fated vessel.

Mrs. Alfred T. Wakefield, of Honolulu, who is also known on Maui, was also enroute to her old home in England on the Lusitania.
Dance at Puunene.

On Thursday evening the visitors were entertained at Puunene, first with an exhibition of swimming by Duke Kahanamoku and a number of lesser lights in the swimming firmament, in the big tank of the Puunene Club; and later by a most enjoyable dance in the club house.
The affair was a very pleasant one both for visitors and hosts.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, May 8, 1915, page 8.

Water Sports Thursday Evening are Followed By Dance on Tennis Courts of Club
(Star-Bulletin StafT Correspondent, with Congressional Party).

Waikuku, May 7.
Fully 1500 people turned out to extend a genuine Maui welcome, and from first to last, the affair was a distinct success.

Duke Kahanamoku was the star of water sports, and his work was watched with great interest by the visitors, for whom whom he gave demonstration of the various swimming strokes, besides capturing the 100 yards event and two relay races.
The Puunene boys showed theirskill in high and fancy diving and tapeze work, all of which proved of considerable interest tothe visitors, a number of whom were witnessing water meef for the first time.

The Puunene tank inclosure had been specially, decorated and remodelled for the occasion, and additional stand on one side of the plunge being reserved for the congressional party.

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, May 12, 1915, page 12.


The people of Kauai will have a Iong-anticipated opportunity to see Duke Kahanamoku in action during the visit of the congressional party to the Garden Island.
Duke, who is traveling with the distinguished visitors, gave an exhibition of his swimming skill at Puunene, Maui, and it occurred to representaive Coney of Kauai that it would be a fine thing for the Kauai swimmers if  the speedy Hawaiian champion could perform there also.

W. T. Rawlins and Duke were called into consultation, and as a result Duke will swim at Hanalei, and at Niumalu, Mr. Coney's place on Kauai.
At both points  there is a landing stage that offers a good vantage point for spectators.
Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, May 12, 1915, 3:30 Edition, Image 12
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The Referee
Sydney, 12 May 1915, page 16.

Manager Evans Lets Loose His Flood Gates of Rhetoric in Eulogising 'Antipodean' Sportsmen

Mr. Francis Evans, who managed the Hawaiian team of swimmers on their tour of Australia and New Zealand last season, gave the 'Sunday Advertiser' a very interesting interview on his return to Honolulu.
The Duke and Cunha took part in 60 races- 27 in New Zealand and 33 in Australia- and also gave eight exhibitions of surf-board riding.
Duke finished first in 20 in New Zealand and 25 in Australia, despite car trouble and the sickness from the heat.
Mr. Evans gives many figures regarding the tour, but his most interesting remarks were those relating to the standard and popularity of the sport here. While Honolulu has every facility and a far superior climate to the Antipodes for holding swimming meets- they call them carnivals there - we are far behind the times here.
The system of handicapping there is unsurpassed, and if Honolulu would but adopt the system, interest would increase a 1000 per cent.
In a handicap event everyone has a chance.
In these races the number of entries has been as high as 125, and the way the system gets those men in the water and takes their times is marvellous.
Boys begin at 10 years of age and compete, with man of 40, and likewise against champions of the world.
These are the ideas of the popular Hawaiian regarding our handicap system, which was unknown to him prior to visiting here.
Time is a great thing with the Australians,' continued the manager.
'Their, carnivals, de spite their being 15 to 20 events on the program, are finished within two and a halt hours.
Everything is system with them, and it is the .finest system in the world.
Coupled with the swimming, the Australians always have a diving event, and this is one of the big fea tures of the carnival.
They generally wind up with the spreading dive, which is a flight of 10 or 12 men leaving the different platforms at once in a swan dive.
Interesting novelties are also introduced at each meet.
I never saw such interesting events in my life.'
Mr. Evans then went on to describe the duck hunt, pudding scramble, etc., which are familiar to the followers of thesport.
'Another thing which greatly helps make the carnivals a success, is the dividing of the lanes.
This is done with a rope stretched the whole length of the tank, with pieces of cork tied to same.
A man will naturally touch this if he begins to get out of his lane, and immediately right himself.
'As sportsmen, the Australians are the best in the world, and they are so keen for a square deal, that once they declined to, stage an event in which Duke was an entry for the reason that:he had just completed a iong train journey and- was not in a fit condition to race.
This was the proposed. race between him and Longworth.


'Swimming among women is in great vogue, and it would be well for our women to follow suit.
Hundreds of clubs are in existence, and the meets these clubs hold compare with the men's clubs!.
All the officials' are women.
It is a pleasure to see one of these meets pulled off.
Snap and dash are the watchwords, and there is not a dull moment- from start to finish.
None, of the women swimmers of Hawa'i or the Californian coast can compare with the Sydney swimmers.
Swimming comes to the Australian women naturally; and there are hun dieds of good swimmers from 5 years of age up.
'In conclusion, I must say that the Australian people are the best, and cleanest of sports, men; and Kahanamoku, Cunhai and, myself were treated so well and honorably, all the way through, that words cannot be found to express cur gratitude.'
The Sydney League Cluh will hold their second annual social and presentation of prizes to-night, May 12, at the Manchester Unity Hall, Castlcreagh-street.
The prizes will be presented at 9.30 p.m., and a program of dances has been arranged while refreshments will be served by ladies.

1915 'SWIMMING.', Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), 12 May, p. 16, viewed 15 September, 2014,

The Garden Island.
Lihue, Kauai, May 18, 1915, page 1.
After the luncheon, moving and group pictures of the party were taken on the lawn of the premises, and then Duke Kahanamoku and young Oliver gave an exhibition of speed swimming in the Huleia river.
Oliver had a fifty yards handicap and gave the champion a close rub.

Chronicling America
The Garden Island. (Lihue, Kauai, H.T.) 1902-current, May 18, 1915, Image 1

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Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 
Honolulu, May 21, 1915, page 10.

Dorothy Becker, San Francisco Mermaid, May Go on the Stage.

Word has reached local friends of Dorothy Becker, the little San Francisco swimmer who took part in the Carnival swimming meet, that she is contemplating a stage career. 
A good deal of press "dope" has been prepared, and Miss Becker may blossom forth in vaudeville at any time.
Although only a youngster, Miss Becker is a very, speedy swimmer, and besides is a diver of exceptional grace and ability. 
She would fit nicely in some mermaid act and should make a success.
While in Honolulu, Miss Becker learned to ride a surf board like a native, and some excellent pictures of her indulging in the sport are being used to good advantage in publicity work. 

Above are two views of the little Coast swimmer, the upper one showing her executing the very difficult feat of riding the board standing on her head.

Chronicling America
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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
June 21, 1915, page 10.

Exposition Authorities Want All-Star Team But Hold Out on Expenses

Either the swimming appropriation of the P.-P. 1. K. is sadly strained, or else the San Francisco official are indifferent as to whether the world's champion and other great water seders from Hawaii take part in the Coast irect or not.
There is a hitch in negotiations between the local A. A. U. and the San Francisco management, that may mean no Hawaii entry in the big races.

The exposition swimming officials have made an earnest request for an all-star Hawaii team to take part in their meet, with Duke and Cunha, of course, included, said W. T. Rawlins, president of the Hawaiian branch of the A. A. U; and of the Hul Nalu, this
"However, they are only willing to put up $500 towards expenses, and we figure the cost of sending a four-man team. Including hotel and incidental traveling expenses, at about $1100.
This leaves a balance of $600 on the wrong side of the ledger, and we can't see our way clear to putting it up.

"A counter proposition made by the exposition people is to pay $330 toward the expenses of Duke and trainer, or Cunha.
That is somewhat ambiguous, and can be read to mean Duke and a trainer, Duke and Cunha or Cunha and a trainer.
I'm not sure just what it does mean." .
It would be a great pity, if Hawaii was not represented in the exposition swimming championships, but it would seem that the San Francisco officials are hardly liberal enough with their contribution if they expect to get an all-star Hawaiian team.
Heretofore, Hawaii has contributed liberally to sending swimming teams from home, but in, this instance it looks as though the exposition people would be the big gainers.
Duke Kahanamoku is probably the best advertised swimmer in the world today, and George Cunha, by his fine work in Australia, has made himself a big swimming card.
With "Stubby" Kruger and Clarence Lane as the two other members, a Hawaiian team would nave a good chance of cleaning up the relay event.
The ' P.-P. 1. E. is bringing crack swimmers from New York and Chicago and it would be interesting to know whether they are to receive only a portion or all of their expenses.
As matters now stand it looks as though Hawaii's participation In the swimming meet might be called off, although there is the chance that the Chamber of Commerce will step in and take a hand in the finance proposition.
Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, June 21, 1915, 2:30 Edition, Image 10
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The Princeton Union.
Princeton, Minnesota, July 15, 1915, page 8.

Pearl of the Crossroads
How She Met Her Fate.
Copyright by Frank A. Munsey Co.

Some one said that a sailorman was good for nothing but to chase about the world and send people presents.

Pearl Smith had known this all her life, though perhaps she had never resolved it into just that expression.
 He was an American bluejacket, boatswain's mate of the destroyer Shark.
There is one amusement the Hawaiians have which Americans do not possess.
We are enthusiastic surf bathers and are good swimmers, but a sight that is seen in Hawaiian waters is never seen on an American coast
A Hawaiian takes with him to the beach a board, usually about twice his length.
This board he carries out as far as he can then, placing himself on it, it bears him, forced by the waves, back again to the beach.
Those who are not expert at this exercise may lie flat on the board, but those who are trained to it stand erect, balancing their bodies as they roll toward the shore.

He met Pearl at Waikiki beach.
She was shooting the surf when Heine saw her first standing upright with outflung arms, she balanced on her polished board of kamani wood as it raced ahead of a giant breaker.
Swift as the wave she flashed past the swimming sailor, but as the waters broke over his head he remembered every line of her beautiful body. The grace' of her attitude struck him harder than the wave.
Turning, he swam strongly toward the beach, where the spent roller had land ed the fairy surf rider.

Half a dozen men were begging Pear] to be allowed to take her board out to the reef again, but she laughed them away with a flash of milk white teeth and struggled out alone.
Heine met her a hundred fathoms from the beach, where the water came almost to his shoulders as he stood on the sand.
"I'll carry your board for you!" he cried as the girl broke through a wave almost upon him.
Startled, she turned her head, and the board slipped, striking on her flower mouth.
As the blood came Heine caught her in his arms.
The wave, receding, shut the other bathers from view, and for ten seconds the sailorman held the girl close to his heart
"My lip will swell!" she panted, struggling to free herself.
But Heine jollied her, just as he jollied the commanding officer of the Shark, and within half an hour she had checked her surf board and bathing costume at the bathhouse and was riding back to town with him, holding her handkerchief to the swelling lip.

Three days later the fleet was ready to sail.
Dusky singers with their tiny guitars strummed the sad "Aloha Oe" - "Farewell" - in every street.

Chronicling America
The Princeton union. (Princeton, Minn.) 1876-1976, July 15, 1915, Image 8
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The Public Ledger.
Maysville, Kentucky, July 20, 1915, page 4.


Dr. Allen Dodson, of this city, created quite a sensation Sunday by introducing something new in the way of water sports.
The Doc has made a surf board which he ties to the rear of his speed boat, and rides upon it with the boat going at full speed.
From the looks of the sport it must be very exciting, and the Doc got several duckings before he mastered the new stunt.
It took well with the motor boat owners of this vicinity and several already have declared their intention of securing a surf board this summer.
Chronicling America
The public ledger. (Maysville, Ky.) 1913-1968, July 20, 1915, Image 4
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Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 
Honolulu, July 26, 1915, page 10.

Motor Surf Board is Final Word in Aquatic Sport Here

The motor surfboard has arrived.
No longer must the surf rider wait for favorable rollers and, after a brief and exciting shoot on the crest of a comber, paddle laboriously out again for another try. 
Now, he need merely give the starting mechanism a spin, jump on his board and beat it across the briny.
Owing to the low freeboard of the surfboard, however, it is necessary to have the motor ahead of, and slightly above the body of the surfboard.

The above picture shows Harold K. Castle (right) and E. K. Miller racing on motor boards. 
They are seen holding to the mechanical contrivance which connects the motor with the board. 
No picture of the motor is available, as it is a secret invention of Mr. Castle, who jealously guards it from possible patent thiefs. 
Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, July 26, 1915, 2:30 Edition, Image 10
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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, July 31, 1915, page 28.

Improvements Costing $3000 Will Be Completed - In Seven years Organisation Has Grown to 1200 membership

From a humble beginning seven years ago, the Outrigger Cance Club has grown to be the largest social organization in the Hawaiian Islands, with a membership of considerably more than 1000, with a waiting list of several hundred.

The Outrigger Canoe Club was ord primarily for the purpose of giving the sport of surf-board riding, which had almost completely died out,  where there were eight white men and boys who little more than a half a dozen years ago could ride the surf board; but today there are hundreds; with the revival of surf-board riding and surf-canoeing grew the social element in the club, so that today $2000  is being spent on improvements, although it is but six months since improvements costing an equal were completed.

The Outrigger Club has never borrowed money, and when the present improvements were contemplated it was merely stated that about $2000 would be spent on the big pavilion dancing lanai facing the sea, and in two afternoons more than 100 members of the club had pledged about $1200, and it was suggested that on completion of the new lanai that opened with a dance to whicheach member of the club would beasked to subscribe five Tickets at $1 each.

Ladies of the Woman's Auxillary,  to make these tickets even more attractive, offered to provide a chowder for each ticket holder, so that on afternoon and evening of August 27, the next full moon date, there will be monster entertainment, a chowder to be followed by a dance.
Members Being Pledged.

The committee in charge is hard at work, pledging each member to underwrite his five tickets, and as the women were providing the chowder and supper, each subscriber will know his dollars will go directly into the improvement fund.

It costs a good many, thousand dollars a year now to conduct the Outrigger Canoe Club, but in the early days
its total annual income was but $300 ($500?).
The hau trees on the grounds were made to serve as shelter for the picnic parties and  a tent house didservice for the men and boy bathers, while a simple Hawaiian grass structure was turned into a bath house for women.

The idea of the Outrigger Club was born in the brain of a malihini- in Hawaii they call a stranger a malihini.

One day two malihinis walked along a little stretch of beach at Waikiki and lamented the fact that the great hotels and palatial villas of the rich had so encroached that practically there was no public entrance to one of the most famous beaches in the world.

The two malihinis looked out on the sea where there were three boys riding on their surf-boards.
They asked if it were possible for them to learn the art of standing on the waves on these chips of wood and were told that it must be learned in childhood.
One of the malihini, a man of 40, proved a doubting Thomas and induced the three youngsters to show him the way on a board out to the big breakers.
In six weeks of hard work, eight hours a day, he mastered the art of standing and riding on the Hawaiian surf-board.
Furthermore, he discovered that by being shown the trick of starting and guiding the board, a novice could learn how to master the surf in a few lessons.
He observed, however, that the beach was practically closed to the small boy of Hawaii who would not afford the daily bath house free (sic, fee).
Howl of Ridicule Went Up.

"Why not organise a surf -board club," he said to some of the young men and boys who were expert surf board riders, "and secure a place on the beach on which to build a clubhouse for those who wish to learn to ride a surf-board?"
There was a general howl of ridicule at the idea of any one, a malihini least of all, securing a bit of property facing Waikiki beach; but the malihini didn't see things just this way.
He found out that one of the leases for an acre and a half of ground would soon expire.
This acre and a half faced the sea between the two great Waikiki hotels and was the property of the Queen Emma Estate.
Here, on these grounds in years gone by, Kamehameha the Great had landed with his war canoes the warriors who conquered the island of Oahu.
Here Queen Emma had learned to ride the surf-board.
Here was built for her one of the old native grass houses and daily with her retainer she would go out as a child to the big surf and come in standing on her board.
It was the most historic bit of ground in Honolulu and the trustees of the estate expressed a willingness to turn over the property to a club that would perpetuate the Hawaiian water sports of which Queen Emma had been so fond.

Thus it was that for a nominal sum this valuable piece of property was turned over to the malihini, on the condition that he organize a club that would make it easily possible during the 20 years of the lease for every grown person and youngster in Hawaii to learn to become an adept In the art of guiding Hawaiian outrigger canoes and riding on the surf-board.

Began With 100 Members.

The Outrigger Canoe Club sprang into existence with 100 members and within a few months more young people were riding the surf -board and steering canoes than had ever done so since the days of the landing of Kamehameha's fleet .
To the astonishment of the people of Hawaii it was found that not only could men of all ages quickly learn the art of riding the surf-board, but that even young girls and women rapidly picked up the accomplishment.
That first summer of 1908 the club was in full swing and the requirements of giving the grounds a Hawaiian effect were carried out.

There were two real Hawaiian grass houses on the island cf Oahu that had been built with all the ceremonies attendant on the construction of such buildings by the Hawailans.
The posts were of real ohia wood lashed together with grass ropes, the walls were lined with pandamus leaves and the whole thatched with the real pili grass used by Hawaiian chiefs on their buildings.
Those houses were secured and moved to the grounds of the Outrigger Club.
Rules were made forbidding the harboring in the grounds of any kind of craft other than real outrigger canoes.
Once a year the native Hawaiian canoeists of the island were invited to make the Outrigger grounds their homes for several days.
Old Hawaiian sports of every kind were revived and it was a unique sight even to the people of Honolulu to see crews of native women in sailing and paddling canoe races.
On the grounds from 50 to 100 Hawaiians lived in the native style in the grass houses, the women pounding taro into poi, the menbaking pigs in imus, or .underground ovens, and everything proceeding as it did in the days when Kamehameha landed on this spot.
Women Became Interested.

The club grew in influence and importance and soon became an institution.
It now became necessary to interest the gentler sex.
A grass bathhouse was built and a part of the grounds set apart exclusively for a women's auxiliary, which soon numbered 40 members.
The hau trees were jacked up on cocoanut posts and trellises and formed into splendid outing places for picnics and parties.
In the great wide lagoon adjoining the Outrigger grounds was built a big thatched dancing pavilion or lanai.
In everything the Hawaiian effect was maintained.

Through the, courtesy of Frank Clark of around-the-world-crulse fame, magnificent silver trophies for the best boy and girl surfboard riders and canoe surfists were offered as an encouragement to those who would be come adept in these sports.

The waters of Hawaii remain at about 78 to 78 degrees of warmth the year around.
It is in summer, however, when the school children have their vacation, that the waters of the bay are crowded  with canoes and surfboards and the grounds with merrymakers.
On the grounds the boys make their own surfboards and the paddles with which they guide the canoes before the great rollers.
Here too they fashion the outriggers and lash them to the canoes.
Once more the old Hawaiian sports are being revived and bid f sir to excel in every way anything accomplished in the days of old.

Has Helped Save Lives.

The revival of the surfboard has also had its useful side.
Many lives have been saved in the surf through the use of the board.
One member of the Outrigger Club has saved as vainy as eight human lives, all with the use of the surfboard.
The surfboard can be propelled through the water very much faster than anyone can swim.
It cuts through the incoming waves and quickly reaches anyone in trouble in the big surf.
The drowning man is placed on the board and the board shoved toward the shore.

There is also the esthetic side to the Outrigger Canoe Club.
There are occasions when scores of canoes are beautifully decorated with lanterns and a night water carnival prepared for the delectation of the members ashore.
Not only that, but some of the youngsters have learned the secret of touching off red fire on the tips of their boards just as they catch the wave and their illuminated figures are seen In outline on the foaming crest.

Perhaps one Hawaiian sport that the club has done least to revive has been that of native fishing.
Still there are members of the club who do sometimes go far out to sea in their canoes and spear the multi-colored fish that swarm in Hawaiian waters.
The usual method is to take a glass-bottomed box and a twenty-foot spear.
The edge of the box is held in. the teeth by the swimmer and the spear in the right hand.
As the fish is seen twenty or thirty feet below, the spearman aims his spear and pierces the fish.
That is how it Is done in the day time.

There are probably as many canoes in the Club grounds at Waikiki as there are outside of the grounds on the entire Island of Oahu.
There are three canoes, however, not on the club grounds, but down at Pearl Harbor, that the club envies and which have been promised.
Two of these canoes are 100 feet in length and it takes 14 paddlers at least to man either one of them.
These are the two largest of the old native canoes left on the islands, and it is the intention of the club to keep them as state canoes for distinguished visitors who come to Hawaii.
The club will also make a collection of Polynesian canoes from all around the Pacific; in fact, a start has been made in this direction.

Twelve Hundred Members

Today, the Outrigger Canoe Club has a membership of 1200 almost equally divided between men and women.
When it I needs funds, the proceeds of a single entertainment is all that is necessary to prevent the club from establishing the precedent of borrowing money, and it is expected that the treat moonlight dance and chowder next month will be recorded
as one of the monumental entertainments given in Hawaii.
With the other desired improvements ; made on the Outrigger grounds, it is hoped and believed that the younger element will once more come to the front in the development of surfing sports and carnivals.

The Outrigger Club has from its inception been one of the great promotion assets of the Hawaiian Islands.
It was through its initial efforts that the A. A. U. in Hawaii was organized, and the Islands have much to be proud of in the direct and indirect accomplishments of the Outrigger Canoe Club at Waikiki.
See the Wonderful Marina Pictures in
Glass-bottomed sail and row-boats for hire
Good Meals Served.
A. L. MacKAY, Proprietor.

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, July 31, 1915, 3:30 Edition, Image 28
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The Sun.
New York, August 1, 1915, page 62.

Atlantic City. July 31 .
Cottagers have clashed with the city authorities over the legality of the "mackintosh law," which compels all bathers passing through the city streets to wear some covering over their surf attire that will stretch well down below the knees.
Gallant life guards have refused to enforce the edict that all bathing skirts must be within six inches of the knee.
The edict was issued by the city fathers, but the "llfe catchers," backed up by Chief Surgeon Charles Bosset, czar of the beach patrol, announced that they would not go up and measure the skirts with tapes, and besides they were supposed to watch the people in the surf and not the paraders on the beach.
Let the beach cops be the censors, they requested, but the bluecoats manage to dodge the responsibility, so the girls are appearing in their bloomer suits and abbreviated skirts just as before.
Motor pursuit contest are now engaging the athletic youngsters along the ocean and inlet fronts.
They fasten their surf boards behind motor boats, climb aboard and then balance themselves as the speedy hydroplanes yank
them across the billows.
The skill required to remain right side tip when the speed boats are making thirty miles an hour or better means practice for
weeks, and the spectator are given some real thrills in watching the youths skip over the waves.

Chronicling America

The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, August 01, 1915, SIXTH SECTION SUMMER RESORTS, Image 62
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The Maitland Daily Mercury
10 August 1915, page 6.

Lance-corporal Ogden, on active service with tho Australian Expeditionary infantry forces, in a censored letter to Mr. C. Rider, of 'Lorn", West Maitland, under date June 17, says: -

"After doing practically five weeks in the trenches, during which we have had some lively times, we were relieved by other troops, and have been spelling away from the firing line for about three weeks so far, and the rest is welcome.

A mile away from our rest camp is the beach, and at every chance we indulge in sea-bathing, which tends to remind me of our Newcastle surf bathing.
The boys, do enjoy the dip and we can hardly realise that we are at war.
I guess our time will soon be around to take another turn in the trenches, and, get the Turks on the move nearer to Constantinople."
Since the above was written Lance-corporal Ogden has been reported wounded.
Prior to enlisting he was engaged on the East Greta railway as night-officer.

1915 'SOLDIER'S LETTER.', The Maitland Daily Mercury (NSW : 1894 - 1939), 10 August, p. 6. , viewed 06 Apr 2019,

The Sun.
New York, August 15, 1915, page 56.

Visitors Using Auto Tires to Coast Them Over the Breakers.
Atlantic City, Aug. 14.
The August rush is on, and it is bigger than ever this year.
Inner tubes have replaced surf boards in popular favor for ocean use in coasting over the breakers.
Motorists take some of their old tubes, have them vulcanized and then carry them to the beach.
One tube will support a half dozen people without dllllculty, and those who do not swim grip the tubes while they bun nee over the combers.
The swimmers take them out into deep water, fit them over their shoulders and behind their legs and then sit for hours, bobbing
up and down on the long swells.

Chronicling America
The sun. (New York [N.Y.]) 1833-1916, August 15, 1915, SIXTH SECTION SUMMER RESORTS, Image 56
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Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, August 16, 1915, page 10.


Waikiki surfrlding is getting some indirect publicity through the press-agent work on behalf of little Dorothy Becker; the girl swimmer, who came here some months ago and was the winner of an unsatisfactory 50-yard race.

Miss Becker is shown in a 3 column photo in the Chicago Tribune doing a "head-stand" on a surfboard and an accompanying. article tells of the pleasures and popularity of surf-riding.

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, August 16, 1915, 3:30 Edition, SHIPPING SECTION, Image 10
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Honolulu Star-Bulletin
Honolulu, August 19, 1915, page 10.

Boards Now in Use at Most of the California Beaches, and Their Popularity Grows

Surfboards; the distinctive feature of Waikiki beach, are in the way of coming Into universal - use on every beach on the North American Pacific coast where there is a good surf.
Already they have become very popular along the great beaches of the South California coast.
At Ocean Park, VenIce; Long Beach and a dozen other swimming resorts, the hoards are now a familiar spectacle.

Cliff Cole, the champion high diver of the Pacific coast who made a visit here not long ago and gave some exhibition diving, when back across the waters full of enthusiasm for the tumbles and excitement of the gay sport.
Almost every day he is on the California beaches with his board and a crowd of Imitators follow him about.
While the surf in these places does not break so. far away as it does on Waikiki beach and consequently does not offer such opportunities for riding, still the new feature opens up twice the possibilities of the old surf bathing.

A great stimulus has been given to surfboard riding by Duke Kahanamoku, who carried his board with him on several of his trips to the coast.
Wherever Duke appeared with it a great crowd gathered on the beaches to marvel at the ease with which he stood upright and rode the bucking waves as skilfully as a cowboy rides a broncho.
Everywhere he was besieged with pupils anxious to learn his methods and his skill with the board is already a popular legend in a dozen great resorts.

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, August 19, 1915, Noon Edition, Image 10
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Press Democrat
Number 198, 22 August 1915, page 2.

European War Scenes Monday at Theaterette

The Hearst-Selig Weekly will depict Serbians and Austrians fighting in the Austrian mountains.
These thrilling battle scenes were taken at a great risk by the camera man.
Other interesting scenes are: Billy Blanchfield riding thirty miles per hour on a surf board, and he takes some spill.
California Digital Newspaper Collection
Press Democrat, Number 198, 22 August 1915, page 2.

Evening Post, New Zealand.
Volume XC, Issue 52, 30 August 1915, page 5.

Lyall Bay Surf and Life-Saving Club.

The annual report of the Lyall Bay Surf and Life-saving Club states that the membership has been well maintained during the season.

Notwithatanding the call made by the Empire on members, the active work of the club has been well attended to, and it, is hoped that those remaining wiII do their utmost to retain the good name of the club.
Life-saving has received due attention during the season, and the committee is pleased to report that the beach has been free from accidents.
The finances have improved considerably during the past season, and it is anticipated that they wiII remain steady during the coming season.
The report refers to the visit of the Hawaiian swimmer Duke Kahanamoku, and says that the thanks of the club are due to Mr. Heu Heu Tekino and his wife for entertaining the team at the Bay, thereby relieving the club of a. great deal of the necessary entertaining.
The report also expresses the thanks of the club to Sir Robert Stout, Messrs. J. E. Henrys, L. P. Blundell, and A. Levy for the practical interest shown by them in its work.
The balance-sheet shows: Receipts £22 5s, expenditure £13 2 4d, cash in hand £9 2s 8d.

The Maui News.
Wailuku, Maui, September 3, 1915, page 5.

Beach Party Given for Palama Basket Ball Girls

The Waihee beach last Sunday was the scene of several bathing parties, and the number of bathers, surf board and canoe riders, gave it the appearance of a tourist resort.

The various beach houses along the shore from Waiehu to beyond Waihee were occupied, and it being a splendid day, an
enjoyable time is reported all along.

At the Penhallow beach house a party was given in honor of the Palama Settlement basket ball team.
Bathing, surfing, and canoeing was indulged in by those present, after which a fine lunch was laid out of which all partook.
The party returned to Wailuku late in the afternoon, tired but happy.

Among those present were: Major and Mrs. W. E. Bal, Mrs. G. D. Schrader, Mrs. A. Garcia, Mrs. Frank Aki, Jr., Misses E. Cunningham, Achoy Ahu, Mabel Titcomb, Lizzie Ianua, Lillian Biart, Mary Luhan, Bernicia Lane, Elizabeth Akana, Jennie Hoina, Mary Honman, Jennie Kahalekal, Ella Bal, Esther Tallant, Girlie Hart, Gladys Hart, L.ouise Robinson, Pet Robinson, Tweet Robinson, Lovey Robinson, Messrs. Archie Bal. Jean Bal, Ernest Weight, Susie Baldwin, John Robin-,son, Henry Robinson, Alvin Robinson, Foster Robinson, Robert Smythe, John M. Brown.

Chronicling America
The Maui news. (Wailuku, Maui, H.I.) 1900-current, September 03, 1915, Image 5
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, September 8, 1915, page 11.

Third baseman Cavin of the Chicago Maroons intends to take a surf board with him to his home in Galveston.
Catcher Hart wants to take one back, too, but he lives in Kansas.

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, September 08, 1915, 2:30 Edition, SHIPPING SECTION, Image 11
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

The Washington Herald.
Washington, D.C., September 10, 1915, page 2.


The Sherlock sisters' singing and dancing have attracted attention at the Gayety this week.
While playing in San Francisco several months ago the Sherlock sisters accepted a dare to take a night with Lincoln Beachey, the famed birdman.
They soared over the Presidio, over the bay. and back over the city.
They were so delighted with the experience they have never been contented since with any other form of locomotion and avail themselves of every opportunity to take a flight.
The Sherlock sisters find outdoor life an essential and with other accomplishments are expert swimmers.
Several years ago, while playing in Hawaii, they became exponents of surf-board riding.
Under the tutelage of Duke Kaunupauhola (sic) winner of the Olympic swimming contests at Stockholm, the sisters soonbecame experts in this thrilling diversion.

The Washington herald. (Washington, D.C.) 1906-1939, September 10, 1915, Image 2
Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC
Persistent link:

Los Angeles Herald
Number 278, 21 September 1915, page 2.


Redondo Beach Swimmer's Invention Proves Popular With the Bathers

REDONDO BEACH, July 26.— A new pleasure was added to surf bathing today by Mrs. Aileen Allen of Redondo Beach.
Mrs. Allen appeared In the surf with a sailing surfboard constructed by herself
She is known as one of the most beautiful and one of the ablest surf swimmers of the Southern California beaches, and as she sailed her board through the surf today she created such enthusiasm among other swimmers that copies of her board have been ordered built at once.
A big fleet of them is expected to appear in the surf Sunday with beautiful young skippers guiding them.

Mrs. Allen's board is eight feet long.
The mast, which is plaited but a few inches from the bow, is four feet high and it carries quite an expanse of sail.
The sail, which is made of unbleached cotton, can be raised or lowered from the stern where she sits.
She guides her craft, with her feet and believes that with a little more practice she will be able to guide it by simply causing it to tip to one side or the other.
Mrs. Allen, with her board, swims out quite a distance beyond the surf line, then hoists her sail and starts in.
When she strikes the surf line she is plowing along about four miles an hour and her ride through the surf is thrilling.
Mrs. Allen is planning to build a small keel or centerboard to her craft to keep it from drifting when under sail and she then believes she will be able to tack at will.
If this proves true she will sail over the glassy swells out beyond the surf until tired and end her dip with a fast ride through the surf.

California Digital Newspaper Collection

 Los Angeles Herald, Number 278, 21 September 1915, page 2.
2019 apologies: On review, I can no longer find this article online.

Mrs. Aileen Allen Piloting Her New Sailing
Surfboard Through the Waves at Redondo Beach
Notes: A sailing surfboard designed and ridden (successfully?) by Mrs. Allen, Redondo Beach, 1915.
This was twenty years before Tom Blake's design, and sixty before Jim Drake and Hoyle Schweitzer's Windsurfer.

In response to the accompanying
board portrait posted by DeSoto Brown on the Surfblurb (January 2019), Hervé Manificat noted:
It seems that the woman on the left could be identified as former diver Aileen Allen who was member of the American team (with Duke Kahanamoku) at the 1920 Olympic Games.
Thanks to Geoff Cater website, we learn that she was used to surfing and invented in 1915 a kind of sailing board long before Tom Blake.

The image is online at, the notes reading:
The young woman on the left appears to be Aileen Allen (1888-1950), a diver in the 1920 Summer Olympics who received her start in competitive athletics with the Los Angeles Athletic Club and returned to the LAAC as a swimming instructor and the Director of Womens Athletics in 1931.
Hawaiian surfer Duke Kahanamoku, also associated with the LAAC, was a gold medal winner in swimming during the 1920 Summer Olympics at Antwerpen.

The photograph was probably taken at Waikiki in 1921-1922, see:
1922 Capt. Warren Clear : Duke Kahanamoku and Waikiki.
Extracts and photographs from Infantry Journal, US Infantry Association, Washington, D.C., Volume 20 Number 4, April 1922.

Mary Aileen Allen (Conquest-) was born on December 22, 1888 (Prince Edward Island, Canada) and died (aged 61) on September 4, 1950 in Pasadena, California.
Aileen Allen represented the Los Angeles Athletic Club in diving and she was the 1917 AAU Outdoor Champion on platform, won the 1916 AAU Indoor Springboard title, and placed 4th in the 1920 Olympics.
She later coached at the Los Angeles Athletic Club.

Also see:

Los Angeles Evening Herald
Number 278, 21 September 1915, page 10.

THE DINGBAT FAMILY      He’s There With the Surf Board        Copyright. 1915. International News Service.        BY HERRIMAN

Note: A cartoon demonstrating the importance of riding a suitably sized surfboard, California, 1915.
The large images were uploaded to assist in reading the text.

California Digital Newspaper Collection

Los Angeles Herald, Number 278, 21 September 1915, page 10.
2019 apologies: On review, I was able to find this article online at:

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, October 16, 1915, page 9.
... Party at the Outrigger Club.

The usual crowd of young folks are spending this afternoon and evening

at the Outrigger Canoe Club.
After a swim and surf ride they will enjoy a picnic supper under one of the hau tree pergolas and then resort to dancing in the new pavilion to the strains furnished by a Hawaiian quintet.
The party will be chaperoned by Mr. and Mrs. W. P. S. Hawk.
Among those invited are: Miss Mid Hawk, Miss Dorothy Hawk, Miss Helen Center, Miss Mae Walker, Miss Dorothy Walker, Miss Florence White, Miss Florence Davis, Miss Louise Girvin, Miss Clemence Glfford. Miss Mildred Chapin, Miss Ruth Stacker, Miss Miriam Stacker, Miss Gertrude Ripley, Miss Peggy Richards, Miss Gladys Traut, Miss Dorothy Winter, Miss lima Woods, Miss Rachel Woods, Miss Peggy Briand, Miss Rhoda Ballentyne, Sam Carter, Frederick Carter, John Gifford, John O'Dowda, Gustave Ballentyne, Lorrin Thurston, George Lindey, George Bromley, Arthur Brown, Dr. Jack Pedeh, Shirley Bush, LeRoy Bush, Albert Bush, Edwin Ideler, Jerry Smith, Gornony Gubb, Ernest Mott Smith, Allen Davie, Chester Taylor, Billy Noble, Stafford Austin, Henry White and Sam Stacker.
Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, October 16, 1915, 3:30 Edition, Image 9
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, November 11, 1915, page 3.


Drifting far out to sea off Walkiki, an empty 14-foot new fishing boat, painted a sea-green, was picked up a few days ago by Capt, Albert Frederickson, skipper of the aOhu Shipping Company's nower schooner Makens.
There is no name on the boat and nothing to indicate to whom it belongs.
In the boat were fishing lines, a sail and a surf board, but nothing to indicate the craft's ownership.
A pair of oars lay in the boat. ,
The little boat is at Pier 9, and Capt. Frederlckson is waiting for a claimant to appear.
Whether some one hired the skiff rowed out to sea and committed suicide by jumping overboard is a matter of speculation.
It is thought, however, that it may have become loosed from its moorings and drifted away.

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, November 11, 1915, 2:30 Edition, Image 3
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, November 29, 1915, page 8.

Concerts, Dances, Japanese Show, Surfing and Auto Rides Outlined

With onlv three days left before the Hill liner Great Northern ties up at Pier 7 Friday morning and pours a crowd of eager tourists into Honolulu entertainment plans for the visitors are practically completed and only a few finishing touches remain before everything necessary to Insure a representative Hawaiian welcome will have been done.
Saturday afternoon will probably be turned over to surf riding and bathing at the Outrigger Club, G. H. Tuttle, president of the organization, having expressed his willingness to have the visitors entertained there.
Boys will be provided to captain the canoes.

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, November 29, 1915, 2:30 Edition, Image 8
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Honolulu Star-bulletin.
Honolulu, December 4, 1915, pages 16 and 17.


A trip through Haleakala crater will be shown In motion pictures by R. K. Bonine at the opera house tomorrow night.
Since Kilauea also is to be shown there will be an opportunity to see Hawaii's two greatest wonders.
Another film that should be of great interest to Honolulu is one which shows the best features of some of the recent Mid-Pacttlc carnivals.
Those who have attended carnivals time out of mind will have some old days recalled to them vividly.
There will be floral parades, the landing of Kamehameha at Waikiki and other scenes.

Unusual motion pictures of surf riding were obtained by Mr. Bonine by building a stand far off shore, where the best riders, unwilling to remain inshore with the beginners, take their boards.
This stand was braced against the surf, and, as an extra precaution, several canoes were placed about It, manned by good swimmers and canoe boys, to rescue Mr. Bonine and his camera if the stand should go down with the surf.
The surf riders move into the eye of the camera at high speed.
As they had passed by the time the surf struck the stand, Mr. Bonine was able to cease unreeling film and hold to supports while
the stand shook with the rush of waters.

Page 17

Cecil Martin of  Los Angeles ; has beenj elected as the instructor at the manual training class at the Y. M. C. A.
Mr. Martin is an experienced shop man and a woodworker of note and classes were held on Monday and Wednesday of this week, and six boys
enrolled to take advantage of the course offered.
One boy has planned to make a surf board while another is working on a model yacht.

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, December 04, 1915, 3:30 Edition, Image 16
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, December 04, 1915, 3:30 Edition, Image 17
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Honolulu, December 6, 1915, page 8.


All the proposed changes in the organization's bylaws went through without opposition Saturday afternoon at the Outrigger Canoe Club's special meeting of members called to vote on the changes.

This means an increase of the initiation fee from $5 to $10 after January 1, and a boost in the annual dues from $6 to $10.
The dues for visitors and guests will go up from $1 to $2 a month.

President G. H. Tuttle of the club said this morning that the new scale of initiation fees and dues will bring in enough money to enable the erection of another locker room.
The club now has 634 members, but its locker space is only designed to care for 584 men and boys.

Improvement of the club's kitchen will be started soon, and the space covered over with a roof.
The new locker building will be completed before the spring and summer rush begins.
Secretary J. Ashman Beaver said today that 30 new members have been admitted in the last four or five weeks.


Sixteen Gorgeous Pages Give Characteristic Views of Island Scenes
Christmas is coming and the Christmas issue of the Mid-Pacific Magazine is here.
Tomorrow the January number, which is the holiday issue of this magazine "Made in Hawaii," will be on the news stands and
a new achievement in magazine-making in the territory will be accomplished.
This holiday number is one superbly gotten up.
Only once before in Hawaii have such color-pages come from the press.
That was in the latest-special issue of the Star-Bulletin, and this number of the Mid-Pacific is from the same establishment the
printing department or the Star-Bulletin.
The cover is a deep, royal purple, against which background is shown a single and perfect hibiscus in its own inimitable colors.  The lettering is in white.
Then follows 16 pages of Hawaiian scenes in colors, colors gorgeous, dainty, redolent of the islands.
The subjects are successively bougainvillea tree, surf -board swimming, night-blooming cereus, cane field and mill, Waikiki scene, pau-rider in floral parade, Haleakala canyon, Waimea canyon, Nuuanu pali, moonlight night in Hawaii, volcano of Kilauea, Hawaii's painted fish,  Olokele gulch, sugar harvesting scene, snow-covered summit of Mauna Kea.
In text description and information the contents of the issue are also noteworthy.
Outside of the color pages the book is printed in duotone brown and the page borders give a handsome effect

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, December 06, 1915, 3:30 Edition, Image 8
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Honolulu Star-Bulletin
December 15, 1915, page 3

Surf boards are bringing Hawaii to the front in the publicity line if the number of inquiries regarding the boards is any criterion.
In the last mail the Promotion Committee received two requests for surf board dimensions and the materials they are made from.
One of the letters came from Capetown and the other from New York.

Chronicling America
Honolulu star-bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, December 15, 1915, 2:30 Edition, Image 3
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

Poverty Bay Herald, New Zealand.
Volume XLII, Issue 13875, 24 December 1915, page 2.

Surf-riding is becoming more and more popular at Lyall Bay, Wellington.
Since the visit of Duke Kahanamoku and his swimming partner, George Cunha, and their notable exhibition of the art of riding the surges, many swimmers have taken up the sport with entusiasm.
Now it is an every-day sight to see many bathers with surf-boards, disporting themselves more or less skilfully on the breakers.

Autographed Postcard, Feb 11, 1915.
 E. S. Marks was  prominant in Sydney sports.
Sydney's premier athletic track is named
The E.S. Marks Field.
Postcard reproduced from private collection.


9 January 1915 :
9 January 1915 : 
24 January 1915 : 
29 January 1915 : 
3 February 1915 :
24 February 1915 :
9 March 1915 : 
16 March 1915 :
17 March 1915 : 
24 March 1915 : 
5 April 5 1915 : 
9 April 1915 : 
30 August 1915 : 
24 December 1915 : 
Tommy Walker Excels at Exhibition - Yamba.
Tommy (Sam) Walker Exhibition - Yamba.
Surfboard Strikes Woman - Coogee.
Surfboard Rgulation - Manly.
Junior Surfboards - Sydney.
Claude West  Rescue and Surf Fatality - Manly.
Duke on Film - Grafton.
Duke on Film -  Launceston, Tasmania.
Tommy Walker Surfboard Exhibition - Manly.
Surfboard Exhibition -  Bondi.
Duke and Cunha Return from Australia - Honolulu.
Sleeping Duke - Honolulu.
Duke Legacy - Lyall Bay NZ.
Surfboard Riding - Lyall Bay NZ.



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Geoff Cater (2000-2019) : Newspapers: Surfing, 1915.