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newspapers : 1920 

 Newspaper Extracts : 1920.


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3 January 1920
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November 1920
Headstand in Sydney, with photograph.
Bondi Carnival Programme

Bondi Carnival Postponed

Surfboard Exhibition, Manly.
Surfboards and Surfboats for Newcastle.
Newcastle Carnival.

Newcastle Carnival.
Surfboard Exhibition, Manly.
Jean Curlewis Goes Down the Mine, Sydney.
Army Plane Swoops Down on a Surfer, Waikiki.
Miss Fitzgibbon Wins Surf Board Display, Coolangatta.
Prince of Wales and Duke, Waikiki.
Wake Surfing Canoe, Hudson River.
Balsa Wood Surfboard for Hawaii.
Prince of Wales at Waikiki.
Mildred Leo Clemens and Her Hawaiians to Tour US, with photographs.
Misses Bleibtrey and Boyle and the Prince of Wales, Waikiki.
Film- Surf Riding in Hawaii, Goulburn, NSW.
Surf Board and Surf-Mat Advertisement, New York.
Viscountess Furness in Canoe Mishap, Waikiki.
Duke Kahanamoku Interview, with illustration.
Balsa wood Fish Surfboard, (Atlantic City?), with photograph.
Atlantic City L
ifeguards and Surfboards, , with photograph.
Summer Preview: Surf, Boards and Girls, Sydney, with photograph.
Alec Wickam's surfboard, Dee Why beach, 1903.
Mildred Clemens' Presentation on Hawaii, Notre Dame.

The Capricornian
Rockhampton, Queensland, Saturday 3 January 1920, page 36.

Surfing in Sydney



1920 'Surfing in Sydney.', The Capricornian (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1875 - 1929), 3 January, p. 36. , viewed 17 Apr 2016,

The Sun
Sydney, 16 January, 1920, page 5

The Bondi carnival committee has given a shield to be competed for by the Bondi and North Bondi Surf Clubs tomorrow at 2.30 p.m.
The programme includes surf board races, canoe surf races, boxing exhibitions, life-saving events, and beach sports.
The officials of the Surf Bathing Association of N.S.W. will control the competition, and the proceeds will be handed over to the St. John Ambulance Brigade.

1920 'BONDI CARNIVAL', The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), 16 January, p. 5. (CABLE EDITION), viewed 29 Mar 2016,

The Sun
Sydney, Sunday, 18 January 1920, page 9.

Rain Causes Postponement

The Bondi carnival was officially
opened by Lieut. Waller Murks, M.H.R., yesterday afternoon, but owing to tho rain the management decided to postpone the competitive events und side-shows until Monday night.
The carnival, which was promoted for the purpose of establishing a local St. John Ambulance depot, and to help the Voluntary Workers' Cafe in their humane cause, gave promise of eclipsing previous records.
Everything conducive to amusement was arranged for.
There were over
60 side-shows, and posters such as "Crazy Cottage" and "Giggle Ville" were calculated to draw anyone.
At an early hour a large crowd assembled.
Rain cannot daunt the en
thusiasm of surf bathers for their favorite sport.
They came clad for the
occasion, but were disappointed, as it was decided that the main event of the day- the surf carnival- would be postponed until January 31.
on Monday night, if the weather permits, the show will be in lull swing.
"The St. John Ambulance," he said, "when started 12 years ago, was accommodated in a room at Randwlck 10ft. by 15ft.
In the year of its
inception 16 cases were treated, and the patients were conveyed to hospital in a two-wheeled handcart.
To date over
6000 cases have been dealt with."
"There is no better body of men in the world," added Lieutenant Marks in conclusion, "and you could not give your help to a more worthy cause."

1920 'BONDI CARNIVAL', The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), 18 January, p. 9. , viewed 29 Mar 2016,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 21 January 1920, page 12.

Manly Life-savlng Club's annual surf carnival will be held on Saturday afternoon.
Included in the programme is the alarm reel race, which is included in a series of point score competitions for the Cecil Healey Memorial Shield.
This event has attracted all the States' champion surf swimmers, among them Harold Hardwick, J. Dexter, S. Wright, and H. Hay.
There will be exhibitions of surfboat and surfboard shooting.
Large entries have been received.

Wednesday 11 February 1920, page 13.

Ross Beats Beaurepair

Mr. Joe Palmer, hon. secretary of the Newcastle Surf Club and Lite-saving Brigade, writes: —
'The Newcastle Surf
Club's annual surf carnival, on Saturday next, promises to surpass anything seen on the beaches since 1914.
This club's
annual carnival, in pre-war days, was always a red letter day for life-savers in the State.
There are record entries,
twelve Sydney Clubs are competing, and upwards of 250 metropolitan surfers are making the trip.
Miss Aggie Sly and
Mrs. Park are going up at the Newcastle Club's invitation.
Messrs. Claude West,
Steve Dowling, R. H. Walker and Downing, in exhibitions of Duke surf-board riding, should provide a novelty of the right sort for the Northern public.
surf-board race has attracted five entries.
Metropolitan boats are Manly, Fresh
water, Dee Why and Collaroy.
Newcastle boat has been recently constructed, but despite that handicap is expected to be with the visitors all the way.
These carnivals at New
castle in pre-war days always attracted a crowd numbering from six to ten thousand.


1920 'Ross Beats Beaurepair.', Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), 11 February, p. 13, viewed 19 October, 2014,

The Newcastle Sun
11 February 1920, page 2.

Next Saturday afternoon what promises to be the finest surf carnival on record for any club In Australia will be held.
No less than sixteen clubs, representing Manly, North Steyne, Clovelly, Coogee, Bondi, Freshwater, Cronulla, Collaroy, Dee Why. North Bondi, Curl Curl, Stockton, Cook's Hill, Merewether and Newcastle will be in the grand march past to take place at 2.20 p.m.
Ilecord entries for all beach and
hon. secretary (Mr. Joe Palmer), who
has worked particularly hard to put
on such an excellent programmo, und
at the same time. be favored with bltf
A trio of events comprising four surf boats in competition exhibition Duke surf board riding by four of Manly'a champion exponents, and the Sly sisters, of Manly are a big show on their own. and are sure to draw a great crowd at the water side.
In order to at tho long pro
gramme of twolvo events Into time.
V^'th? »ar,atlo ortemally Intended
from tho Post Ofllco has had to bo
fhi ac.h i ,No'ca«l8'» popular band,
Sit 4«n ? on™ uMor Bandmaster
sgt- Ben. J.. Oliver, complotcs a Dro
gramme, the best yet submitted to tho
Newcastle public. The Newcastl^Burf
Startup' b° 'V'M by * '?«»*

1920 'GRAND BEACH GALA', The Newcastle Sun (NSW : 1918 - 1954), 11 February, p. 2. , viewed 05 Jan 2017,

Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate
16 February, page 4.

Awaiting Discombubalation ...
The carnival held on the Newcastle beach on Saturday afternoon, under the auspices of the Newcastle Surf Club and Life-saving Brigade, was in every respect successful, and the presence of many thousands of the public ave laul lthlcr v daince of the growing and sustained popularity of this healthy and invigorating sport.
The weather was perfect, and the surf could hardly have been more suitable for an occasion of this kind, Ui:werdas 1 200. 'vlsitlng 'swimmers tooke part, coming from 'Maly,' DecWhy, Freshwater, andl Collaroy, and;, tn.additlon to thelm, all tha distrlc.t clubs weore' reproseuted In lull strength. Thoe' Slysist'rs, two oethearle swimmers, also mado the tr1p, and lduriaug the? onfternoon gave ?ari exhibition uof aji swimmilng and shooting, Jhlhey \'oro glvoe a cordial receptlonl;iby 1tua great gather. In; both beforo anand after their tlurln In the water. : Anothler outaltandlng featuro of the day ?was the surf board riding Iy the MIanly oxponents; C. West, S. Dowling, R.IH. fVallkor, nld O0. Lowvnilng. Somc re markabloe rldlng .wlas edone, the swilmmorb on the boards baefltcs.rrlod aloeng lir crests of the wavese or soverul llhnldrld yards Uninterrupltedly, standllng ulpright. Tlheaosd aro, feItue tht roquire lmuchl prac t(ie, and are:quito noVel onl tile Newecatic beaches, whore ttlrl f bonrds lre not illoe.. cdl;in'tli'ae rilter;. Tile lart was ilntroducedl into Austl'alia by, tioe caoloured swimaler Dlike iIKalanainoahku. ?Much, exclrmull t was o.created .by the sirf boat raneing, In which,' flvo botse looke part. Scevrohll were swalampod' boleorg they negoltiated th nral line of breaknurs, The Freoshwatler boat was"thoefirst to fill, but the cce; rl wlb the utmost ddeopailtcli, got Ickl tolthe sald, iand emptyilg theilr craft, Inmade a secol;nd nad' more- doltermlinod stalrt, wlunlg Ithe event.' amid : eornig. Thile lprclnculnr ide laof the.carnsaivll was hielped by lthe cleover exhlbitlona of. eual.shoollng gleeO by'H 1"A.., preoi n and R. K. lobinson laI thoeamnlil canp "Stlcky Beak." A specl. ally solecd .pirogramme of Iluale wai rendored- by 'tho':e 2nd Inflantlry nttatllla Band:uanidor the baintolof Warraht Oicet 1, J. Olivor; Thoeomaclnls carried unt ltha' dutleaii nan ':osomnplary manner. Mr. A. 1. Vesper acting as dihecter, Mir. (I. Chllda reforto, Mr J,. Cirinnag stlarter, Secsara, 0, ,:H, Morrtt,, R;1 ;. Doylo, D. H, Tholullp. san, .0; 1, Palmor,.A HI. Liddyl, and J. V, Strong Jaisdges, ffisasre, N. V. Cayloy, R. .Ilddlotosi' and 5? .Wisdon tnlkseepers, Tha soorotariall:dutles,-woro attended to by Mr, J Palinor;: : The roallits of the variol' even?tls acero as follow :- Parade of.Tatar?s.and March Pals.

ooklt's Hill, 1; .Nor0 .,SL0yno, 2; CollnroY, 32, e Toems from .Nnrrnboon, Uondl, North Boindi, Oronulla, Stookton, Morowelher, Newvonatlo,,Dooe Wihy, Coogoo, Fresouwnter, Clovolly, nnd Newcastle Junior Life RSaver nalso took. part, the parnde being one of the' most strikting that ha over been witl noteod on tho beach. The dtcclelon was awarded: on polnts'l given for eneatnOIs, disclpline, equipment; mid Inumrchins, Ih prize being tile Lifo-saying elllt. Resouo Competitlion.-Coolk'a Hill No, I (J. King, S, Wndo, P; Shophelrd, K. lnos, J. Wllllamson, A, Dnvis),. llrat. with 37.22 points, mnxinmum points 40; Nowcnatle No. 1, 88,03 pollite; 2: Manly, 30.10 poinl4 third. Tonms from Bondi, Coogoo, Slochk ton, North Bondi, North Stpyr., ilso look prirt. 'MorewotlhoreClovelly, Newcastll No, 2, nnd Cook's Hill No.. 2 wcre dis. qualifled. Beachl Rolny Race, for tonena of Ifolr. First hoat : Doo Why No., . Second hdat! Cook's Hill No, 1. Third heat : Newcalenl No. 1, Final : Cook's Hill, 1; Doe WhIy, , Whooelhnbarrowi Raco.--llost hant, A. Davis nnd P. Scully, Cool's 111ll; Hecond holt, T. Walshnm and Dn; Hthcringion, Cook'ls Hill third heat,'O. Watt and J. Merris, N 'cwcastle; fourth heat, L. ColaoinllghOm nnd n, Manuon, Olovelly; fifth heal, L JoBes and J. Mclghan, Cook's 1hll. Final; : Dnvis and Sclcily, 1; Ounilngham ande annlon, 2. Bonlor Alarm Raco.-Flirst heat. : Manly No, 1 iS. C. Wright, IC, Chorrll, A,. llnen, 1,. M'Crnth, M, Fl:ollo),l secondl acnl, Froahlipter (C, Wlltahiro, T. Thlirilng, , Pltlcock, H. Pldtock, A., Datcs) ; Illrl lant, Cook's HI1I No. 2;(J, Willinoson, V, WVlmsloy, S. Wnde, W. Owen, W. Fi11. gorald): fourth helat, Coolt's Ill No.1 (I. nosa, A, Davin,.L. Jloneos, J, eloghleln, P. Slhephord). Finnl : Cook's 1ll No. 2, 1; Frcshwnatr, 2. Pillow Flght.-R. Abbott (Collnroy), Surf Bont Race.-Froshwnter (I, alltheb eon, i). Matheson, , Tlhlorling, Tr. O'Neill, II. L, Asson). Crows from Mlnlyl, De Wihy, Collnroy, and Newcantlo nIRo took part. Junior Alarm Reel nnee.--Flrel hela North Stoyne (lovana, Ilonting, Cnddon, Elleon, Pike)r; second hont, Narrealenl (Proudfoot, Hnncokl, F. andl W, White, Potereon). Finnl : Nnrrabhon, 1; North Stoyne 2. Suirf Raco.-Sixty swimmers took Part I a tils rnce, vhbith wns won by II. Sneltels.. Cnarry 'our Clllm.-S. Cllnninghal m anl n. Mananne (Clovolly). An exhihbtion of reefno nnd rasll0ail' tion wa\' given by the Newrnstle Junlet Life Severe (Konrleth 1Ho0o, T. young, T. Tnaylor, G. Woodcock, 0. Flt.slmmons, cndl, F, Koahl).

1920 'SURF CARNIVAL.', Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954) , 16 February, p. 4, viewed 15 Sept, 2014,

Sydney, Friday 20 February 1920, page 5.

A great deal of excitement was supplied by
the surf boat race, in which Freshwater gained easy honors, although capsized at the start.
Collaroy filled second place, and Newcastle
Considering this style of sport is quite
new in Newcastle; the local team did well in securing a place out of five starters.
The Duke
surf board riding exhibition was also a novel entertainment to the city.

1920 'NEWCASTLE SPORT.', Arrow (Sydney, NSW : 1916 - 1933), 20 February, p. 5, viewed 23 October, 2014,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Saturday 6 March 1920, page 9.

The series of seaplane flights, conducted by Flight-Lieutenant Roberts for the committee of the Manly Peace Memorial Hospital Carnival, have proved such a draw that passengers trips are being made a daily feature of the carnival.
A surf carnival for the Manly Surf Club, and similar clubs north of Manly only, will he run this afternoon, with alarm reel races, surfboard exhibitions, and surfboat races.
A fancy dress fete will be held at night, and there will be a display of aerial bombs.

The Sydney Morning Herald
 Monday 15 March 1920, page 8.

Many thousands were attracted to Bondi Beach on Saturday afternoon, to witness the championship surf carnival, held under the auspices of the New South Wales Surf Life-saving Association.
The march-past of 10 teams limited to 20 members, provided a spectacular opening.

March Past Championship.- Cook's Hill (Northern Association), 1; Cronulla, 2; North Steyne (Manly), 3.
Surfboat Championships - Senior: Freshwater, 1; North Narrabeen, 2; Collaroy, 3.
Junior: North Narrabeen, 1; Freshwater, 2: Collaroy, 3.
Beach Sprint Championship, 100 yds.- Final: J. P. Macnamey (Collaroy), 1; A. Sheldon (Collaroy), 2; H. P. Congdon (Cronulla), 3. Close finish.
Rescue and Resuscitation Championship.- North Steyne (A. Hodge (patient), A. Davies (rescuer), W. Keith (resuscitator), L. V. Hinde, E. Whitehead, 1 IL Middleton), 55 79 points, !. Bondi (U B llotchcr (patient), W G Douglas (rescuer), L. A Clarke (resuscitator), G Blown R Stewart, Q Sherwin), 5i 70 points, 2, Newcastle 62 r9 points, S
Ladles' Surf Championship - Miss II Andrews (North Bondi), 1 Miss Townsend (Muulj), 2, Miss E Moore (Cooge), 3
Alarm Reel Championshlp - North Steyne, 1, Bondi,  2 Exciting finish
400yds Beach Relay Championship -rmal Coogee, 1, Collaroy, 2 South Narabeen, 3
Surf Relay Championship - Manly, 1, Coogee, 2
losers were overlipped
Surfboard Race Championship - A. Mackenzie (North Bondi), 1; O. Dowling (Manly), 2; A. Motham (North Bondi), 3.
Surf Race Championship -V 0 Smith (Manly), 1, J Dexter (Coogee), 2
Won very easily

Tug of war Championship - North Bondi beat Bondi, Collaroy beat Cook's Hill, Deewhy beat Clovelly, North Bondi, bye.
Dee Why beat North Bondi.


1920 'SWIMMING.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 15 March, p. 8, viewed 12 June, 2012,

The Ogden Standard.
Ogden City, Utah, March 22, 1920, page 3.
Army Plane Swoops Down on a Surfer

HONOLULU, T.H. March 15

(By Mail)
An army biplane out of control and manned by Lieutenant C. E. Duncan and Sergeant H. W. Russell, swooped down on Wilbur Morse, Jr., while he riding a surf board at Waikiki Beach recently like a sea gull after a choice tidbit, and, although the plane was completely wrecked, neither its crew nor the surfer was injured.
Young Morse, who is the son of Lieutenant Wilbur Morse. U. S. N. It. F., was riding his board on a big comber on the "second break" surf, when the airplane came out of the sky and headed straight for him.
Lieutenant Duncan, pilot of the plane, caught a glimpse of Morse and tried to "zoom," but tho machine refused to answer.
As the heavy biplane, almost skimmed the surf board, Morse headed into the comber just in time to escape being crushed.
The machine crashed into the smoking breaker, smashed the propellor, crumpled its wings and turned over, while the lieutenant and sergeant leaped free with only a few scratches.

Chronicling America
The Ogden standard. (Ogden City, Utah) 1913-1920, March 22, 1920, LAST EDITION - 4 P.M., Image 3

Image and text provided by University of Utah, Marriott Library
Persistent link:

The Brisbane Courier
Friday 9 April 1920, page 8.


A successful seaside carnival organised by the Tweed Heads and Coolangatta Life Saving Club was held on Easter Sunday and Monday.
Results -
McDonald Shield Competition - Tweed Heads and Coolangatta No 1 team, 153 points, 1;
Currumbin Life Saving Club, 149, 2; Tweed Heads and Coolangatta Life Saving Club No 2 team, 132, 3; Kirra Life Saving Club, 116, 4; Byron Bay Life Saving Club, 104, 5.
Surf Board Display - Miss Fitzgibbon.
Gold Rush - A. T. Davis and L. Gray.
Surf Race -  T. W. Springfield, 1; E. S. Collin  2.
Pillow Fight - O. Martin.
Surf Rescue Race - A. Copland.
An examination was conducted here during the Easter holidays for Life Saving Society and and surf awards.
Results: - Byron Bay one proficiency certificate, eight bronze medallions, one honorary instructor's certificate, eight surf bronze medallions, one surf honorary instructor certificate; Tweed Head 2 surf bronze medallions, one surf honorary instructor's certificate; Brisbane six surf bronze medallions, one honorary instructor's certificate.

Sydney Mail
21 April 1920, page 14.

Surf-riding is a strenuous sport; it is also a dangerous one.
Last week the Prince of Wales viewed a great exhibition by some of the world's mos brilliant exponents at Honolulu.
He also had the exciting experience of riding in a surf boat under the guidance of Duke Kahanamoku,
who is so well known in Australia as a great water-sportsman.

THE most thrilling of all sports!
That's what it is.
Nowhere in this world can be found anything more exciting and fascinating than that rush shoreward at the speed of an express train — always in front of an immense roller, its crest towering above your head, until when nearly inshore the wave breaks and you finish your ride with the surf seething and hissing behind you.
But it takes a good deal of nerve and a lot of patience and skill to master the art.
When surfboard-riding was born, no one knows; but the early missionaries to Hawaii in their memoirs recount bow the Hawaiians used to come in before the waves on portions of the trunks of the cocoanut palm.
Later, as the white man began to settle in the islands, the surf board of to-day was designed, and now every day of the year surfers can be seen off Waikiki.
Waikiki is the popular beach of the Honoluluans, and lies some three miles from the city.

BUT to return to surfing,
For years the sport had been almost abandoned, until one day a 'malihini' (newcomer) was sitting under a cocoanut (sic) palm talking to a number of local lads about the possibilities of starting a beach club and reviving surf-riding.
The founding of the outrigger club was the outcome.
This was ten years ago.
To-day the same club is the principal beach club in Hawaii, has over 500 members, and surfing has justly come once again into its own.
Duke Kahanamoku is a member, and can be seen there every afternoon.
The surfboard is made of Californian redwood, well planed and varnished, eight feet in length, 20 inches to two feet in width, and four inches thick; it is squared off at one end, while the front comes to a rounded point.

TO reach the surf one has to paddle out about half a mile or so.
This is done by lying flat on the surfboard and propelliiig oneself along with the hands.
It is the 'hoy-ing' (as the local boys call it) out to the waves that tells on the beginner, and very often discourages him from further attempts to master surf-riding.
In the first instance, the weight of the body is supported on the lower ribs, while the head is held up 'turtle fashion.'
This is very tiring until one gets used to it.
Then the act of paddling brings certain muscles into play that have never been used before; but they are quickly developed, and after a week's practice one can 'hoy' all day without feeling it.

Another penalty the beginner has to pay is the sufferings of sunburn, for the direct rays of the tropical sun burn hiinplaces on his arms and legs that have never been exposed to 'Old Sol' before.
Then there is the general 'wear and tear' that the beginner has to suffer.
Being unable to manage his board properly as he paddles out, he is thrown hither and thither by the incoming waves, sometimes losing his hoard and having to swim quite a distance to recover it.
To go through these waves is an art the beginner must learn early in the game if he wishes to avoid the discomforts of frequently losing his board.
There are many ways adopted by surfers paddling out to the reef, one of the most popular being to drop off the board and sink down behind it, at. the same time pushing it directly through the oncoming wave.
This is all right in small surf; but when the waves are running high the chances are that the board will be wrenched from his grasp and sent rushing shoreward.
 The most certain and the safest way is to get up in front of the surfboard just as the wave arrives.
This causes the nose of the board to sink, so the wave passes harmlessly overhead, the surfer emerging safely into the calm water beyond.

ALL these obstacles are trying to the beginner, and it is no wonder that many abandon it after their first attempt.
But to the man who will stick to it, let his muscles get hardened and body tanned, great is his reward, for he will soon learn the art of surfing - 'the sport of kings,' Jack London once described it.
Now we may add, 'and of princes.'
As Jack London visited Honolulu and tried it, he was in a position to speak.
Arrived at the reef, one sits astride the board and waits for a wave to come along.
Not every wave that rolls in, however, can be ridden.
The right kind' of a wave is the one with an apparently sharp feathery edge to it, that .seems as .if it were going; to break every minute,. but doesn't; and the higher the wave the more force, and consequently more speed, it has.
Finally, after about 'fifteen minutes' waiting, a. good wave will come in; but the surfers will let it pass —-they know that it will clear and smooth the. surface of the water - and prepare to catch the next, which follows in the space of a couple of minutes or. less.
The 'good' waves always come in groups of three or four, so if one misses the second he is bound to catch the third or fourth.

TO catch a wave, the board is pointed shorewards, and, lying flat, with only the toes hanging over the end of the board, everybody paddles furiously, windmill fashion, propelling the board as fast as possible, for unless a certain amount of momentum is attained the wave will sweep on alone.
It is the hardest task of the beginner to catch a wave.
Time and time again lie will 'hoy' for a roller, only to be left-behind in a shower of 'wind-driven' spray.
On other occasions the wave may curl preparatory to breaking, and he is caught in that.
To be caught in the curl means that , the would-be surfer takes a swift free trip to the coral gardens at the bottom of the Pacific, while his board is tossed high in the air by the breaker, as if in derision.
It is herein that about the only danger of surfing lies, for woe betide the unfortunate beginner who fails to remain under the water until he is sure his board has finished its aerial flight.
The writer has known several beginners, and also some good surfers, too, who have had the misfortune to reach the surface from below at the identical moment and at the same spot as their surfboard.
Being caught in the wave and taking a trip below is popularly known among the Honolulu boys as 'pearl-diving.'

ONE soon learns how, when, and where a wave will break, and places himself and acts accordingly.
Having 'caught' the wave, the finished surfer 'slides' across it, standing erect, and is borne towards the beach at surprising speed.
Once the beginner has gi'aduated and can harness any wave, he is to be seen there day after day.
From thence the call of the surf is always ringing in his ears, and he simply cannot resist from 'hoy-ing' out to the reef and catching a few waves
— Reg. M. Clutterbuck.

An Expert at the Game.

         Rising to the Occasion at Waikiki.

One day only was spent in Honolulu by the Renown, but enough romance, interest, and unusual entertainment were compressed into the brief visit of the
Prince to suffice for a week.
A whisper went round early in the day that the Prince purposed to try surf-riding on Waikiki Beach quietly by himsel.
Everybody in the city heard the whisper within half an hour, as if it had been shouted by the San- Diego magna vox.
A large proportion of the entire population of Honolulu assembled in bathing costumes on the beach late in the afternoon, bathing being entirely suspended.
The jetty from the Manoa Hotel was packed from end to end.
 Photographers and cinema operators erected machines on native outrigged canoes, and waited in the surf at the imminent risk of catastrophes.
Cheers went up when the Prince emerged for a little quiet enjoyment.
He wore an ordinary dark blue costume edged with red.
Duke Kahanamoku, the famous Hawaiian swimmer, attended with a native outrigger canoe.
Amid an enthusiastic cheer the Prince and party shoved off, the Hawaiian taking the steering paddle.
The Prince occupied the thwart, taking the paddle next the Hawaiian.
The party paddled out a mile , coming back with the speed of an express train, surrounded by cinema and camera men.
Frequent runs were made, members of the crew declaring that it was like tobogganing.
The Prince afterwards enjoyed a swim.
— cable message,

1920 'A PRINCELY SPORT: SURF-RIDING AT HONOLULU.', Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), 21 April, p. 14. , viewed 29 Jun 2016,

The North Platte Semi-Weekly Tribune.
Nebaska, April 27, 1920, page 7.

Coasting In Wake of Boat
Passengers on one of the Hudson river ferries in New York were treated in the summer of 1919 to the odd spectacle of a canoe sailing in their wake, all the way across the river, without any means of propulsion.
What made
the canoe go was a question that puzzled many.
The more observant no
ticed that the canoe did not keep to the smooth water directly aft the ferry boat, but rode off to one side, in the rough waves that the paddle wheels kicked up.
They also noticed that the
canoe did not hug the ferryboat close, and that often it pursued Its mysterious course at a considerable distance, though it traveled just us fast as the ferryboat.
According to a writer in
the Scientific American who explains the mystery, the canoe always took a position on the forward side of a wave and kept If all the way across.
wave carried the canoe along as the surf carries the Hawaiian on his surf board.

Chronicling America
The North Platte semi-weekly tribune. (North Platte, Neb.) 1895-1922, April 27, 1920, Image 7

Image and text provided by University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE
Persistent link:

Grand Forks Herald.
North Dokota, April 30, 1920, page 2.

San Francisco, April 30.-
A surf board made of balsa wood from South America, said to be one-third lighter than cork, is to be tried out at Honolulu by W. P. Roth, general manager of the Matson Navigation company.
Roth also has had built a sort of surf lounging chair of balsa wood for use of bathers.

Chronicling America

Grand Forks herald. (Grand Forks, N.D.) 1916-1955, April 30, 1920, Image 2
Image and text provided by State Historical Society of North Dakota
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Also published in East Oregonian : E.O., April 29, 1920, page 2.
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The Washington Herald.
 D.C., May 12, 1920, page 2.


There was a king in a days of old that told the waves to lie down and stay so.
But, his royal highness, the Prince of Wales, tried no such monkeyshines with the waves of Waikiki.
He took what they what they gave him and laughed.
During his brief stay at Honolulu the prince spent several hours surf-boarding and said he was "jolly well pleased."

Chronicling America
The Washington herald. (Washington, D.C.) 1906-1939, May 12, 1920, Image 2

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Evening Times-Republican.
Marshalltown, Iowa, June 2, 1920, page 4.

Miss Ethelda Bleibtrey and Miss Charlotte Boyle.
Brooklyn, N. Y., May 29.-
That the Hawaiian Islands are rightly termed the jewels of the Pacific, that it is a great life if one does not weaken, and that the Misses Charlotte Boyle and Ethelda Bleibtrey, the world's champion women swimmers, did more on their trip to Hawaii than win more national championships, can be gleaned from letters which the two Brooklyn girls have sent to friends and to their home club.

Last winter the Metropolitan A.A.U. announced that it was going to send the two Brooklyn mermaids to the centenary in Honolulu on April 12.
So on Thursday, March 18, the twain set forth on their trip half way around the world.
Their first stop was at Detroit, where both Miss Boyle and Miss Bleibtrey cleaned up in all events.
From Detroit they went to Frisco, where they were to depart on a steamer to the Hawaiian Islands.
At Hawaii they competed in the races held there, made a brief acquaintance with island life and returned to California.

From Frisco the wandering Flatbush girls went across the bay to Oakland, swam in Oakland, and then went to Los Angeles.
They cleaned up again in that town, and are now about to start for the east.
Miss Boyle, writing from Los Angeles to one of her sister members of the Women's Swimming Association of New York, tells of her trip, and has this to say of her surf-riding experience at Honolulu with the prince of Wales:"After the excitement attendant to our arrival died, down, we had arival upon the hospitality of the Hawaiians.
After much firing of guns and hip-hip-hoorahs and singing of 'Hands Across the Sea,' we found that the islanders were wel­coming Edward Albert Patrick David,alias the prince of Wales.
We just arrived in time for the excitement.
He got more than he was looking for.
"At the first opportunity he was brought to the Outrigger Club to be given a surf board and canoe ride.
After putting on his royal bathing suit, his royal shyness seemed more shy than ever.
But he was game.
The prince, Duke Kahanamoku, Ethelda and myself went out about a mile and then sailed in on the crest of one of those long, curling breakers.
The first time the board behaved and we landed his nibs on the sand.
But the second time a cross current hit the board and over it went with all hands.
The duke came up first, then Ethelda and I came up together.
When a surf board upsets, it is no joke, for the board is from fifteen to eighteen feet long, and is rather heavy.
In capsizing, board struck 'Al' on the foy at sconce.
When he came up he blew water out of his mouth, rubbed his head and said with his Piccadilly accent:
'Oh, I say.
What a bally whack!

The decued thing came a cropper.'
"But withal, the prince is all right.
His time, for the 50-yard swim was about 39 or 40, but, still, had he remained longer, we would have made a good swimmer out or him.
He used a fancy English stroke, tried to pick up the six-beat double trudgeon of the W. S. A., but there wasn't time."
At Honolulu Miss Boyle set a new Hawaiian record, for 220 yards of 3:031-5, while Miss Bleibtrey set up a new world's record for the 50-yard breast stroke by doing the distance in 36 seconds flat.
She also set a new Hawaiian report by winning the 440 in 6:213-6.

Chronicling America
Evening times-Republican. (Marshalltown, Iowa) 1890-1923, June 02, 1920, Image 4

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The Owosso Times.
Michigan, June 11, 1920, page 6.

Hand-Picked Company of Native Musicians in the Islands Chosen for Long Tour in United States
and Canada During Present Summer Sailed May 19th from Honolulu with
Mildred Leo Clemens

Mildred Leo Clemone (sic) and Her Native Hawaiians on the Famous Waikiki Beach, April, 1920.

Six of the finest native musicians in all the Hawaiian Islands sailed from Honolulu on May 19th on the steam ship "Maui," to fill their first American engagement.
They will appear
on the Coit Alber Premier circuit in Indiana, Michigan, Kentucky, Ohio.
The company is a hand-picked group of unspoiled native instrumentalists and vocalists, all of whom are prominent in musical circles of the Islands.
They were chosen for
the especial tour by Mildred Leo Clemens, cousin of Mark Twain, who visited the Islands early this year, and
following the instructions from the Coit-Alber offices, engaged the finest musicians available.
A cablegram
from Miss Clemens on the day of departure stated that her company will be the finest organization which has
ever toured America.
They are real
Hawaiians and real musicians.

Daring American Girl Sees
Hawaii from the Clouds

Mildred Leo Clement, in Quest of Lecture Material and Photos,
Resorts to Novel Scheme

Mildred Leo Clemens

Moving pictures of an aeroplane flight over the famous Diamond Head and Waikiki Beach in fair Hawaii, with Mildred Leo Clemens as the daring lady in the "shot" machine, will be a feature of "A Night In Hawaii," on the Coit-Alber Chautaqua circuit this season.
The film was made in
April of this year.

The movie thriller, however, is but
one of a dozen features of the evening.
In the first place, preluding the
lecture of Miss Clemens on life and customs of the Islands, will be the appearance of her own native Hawaiian company, six of the finest vocalists and instrumentalists in all Hawaii.
These musicians were se
lected personally by Miss Clemens.
The company sailed from Honolulu on the 19th of May, and Miss Clemens, who is an authority on Hawaii and its people, frankly states she has the finest company which has ever left the Islands.

The names are well known in both
native and American musical circles of the Islands.
The sextette consists
of Kulei Poina Ole, Ane Hila, Keoni and Kewini Panui, Kamaki Pahu and Kahaia Pahu, three ladies and three

Miss Clemens, who is a cousin of Mark Twain, is a lecturer of considerable fame.
She has assembled a
wonderful collection of photographs of Hawaii and its people, which will, shown on the screen.
In addition
to the movies taken along Waikiki Beach and over Diamond Head.

Prominent Hawaiian Musicians.
The personnel of the company consists of Knulei Poina Ole, generally considered the finest steel guitar player in the Islands, and one of the few women who have been able to master this difficult method of playing; Ane Hila, a true Hawaiian type, who sings, plays and features interpretations of the old Hawaiian legends, particularly the "Ululull," or warrior's dance, and the "Puill," or
sacred Bamboo dance; Keoni and Kewini Panui, versatile brothers, masters of guitar, ukelele, steel guitar and mandolin, and vocalists of considerable fame in native circles at Honolulu; Kamaki Pahu, a thorough musician, leader of the Hawaiian Glee
Club at Honolulu; and, lastly, Kahaia Pahu, whose voice was a favorite in all Hawaii.
Kahaia Pahu was so
loist with Prince Kuhio, Hawaii's delegate to Congress, on his last tour of the Island.
Prince Kuhio is today
the most popular statesman of his beloved land.
The engagement is a splendid feature for the big Chautauqua.
year has seen the same old Hawaiian companies touring the United States, the members in most cases having lived in the United States most of their lives.
The continuous popular
ity of Hawaiian music, however, led the Coit-Alber management to believe that a real company of natives
who could really play and sing Hawaiian music, with the fascinating and alluring interpretation so characteristic of the race, would be an appreciated feature on this year's program.
This especially when accom
panied by Miss Mildred Leo Clemens in her great illustrated lecture "The Pacific Paradise."

"Aloha Oe" As Warbled by Native Singers Furnishes New Thrill
for Mildred Leo Clemens, Visiting Islands.

Miss Clemens and Her Hawaiians on the Beach at Waikiki.

A few days before embarking from their native land, a sextette of well known Hawaiian musicians sang "Aloha Oe" and other favorite Hawaiian melodies, for Mildred Leo Clemens, the lecturer, with whom the natives are to travel during the present summer.
"Aloha" had a new meaning for Miss Clemens.
The final concert took
place on the celebrated "Beach at Waikiki," in the very shadow of old "Diamond Head."
"Perhaps it was
the fact that my company was starting on its first tour outside the Islands," said Miss Clemens.
"At any
rate the environment, the song, the tremendous feeling that seemed to be in every note, thrilled me as I never before had been thrilled."

Miss Clemens and her company left on May 19th on the steamer Maui from Honolulu.
They are to appear
on the Coit-Alber Premier circuit.
Miss Clemens has been on the Island for several months, selecting her company and gathering material for her lecture on Hawaiian life and customs.

Hawaiian Art Is Distinctive
Asserts Native Soprano

Miss Kahaia Pahu, of Honolulu,States Native Tone
Quality Is Inimitable
by Other Nationalities

Miss Kahaia Pahu of Honolulu.

"The name Hawaii is synonymous for music the world over," stated Miss Kahaia Pahu, soloist with Mildred Leo Clemens' Native Hawaiian Company, in a recent interview published in the Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
Pahu sailed with Miss Clemens' company on May 19th, for a Chautauqua tour in the eastern United States with the Coit-Alber circuit.
"The charm of our music is due to two things: First, a sympathetic, vibrant tone quality which other nationalities cannot achieve, even if they attempt to imitate; secondly, an unusual long and vocal cord development which produces full, round and pleasant tones."

Chronicling America
The Owosso times. (Owosso, Mich.) 1897-1926, June 11, 1920, Image 6

Image and text provided by Central Michigan University, Clark Historical Library
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Goulburn Evening Penny Post
Tuesday, 15 June, page 2.

A-splendid scenic gave
most interesting views of surf riding in Hawaii.
A Bray Pictograph and
a Gazette make up the balance of a programme of all-round excellence.

1920 'LYRIC THEATRE.', Goulburn Evening Penny Post (NSW : 1881 - 1940), 15 June, p. 2 Edition: EVENING, viewed 23 October, 2014,
New-York Tribune.
New York, June 16, 1920, page 13.
The Greatest Sporting Goods Store in the World
Madison Avenue and 45th Street, New York

All the Summer sports and the lawn games are bringing forth budding champions.
There is a close relationship between the Abercrombie & Fitch store and the perfectly groomed country place
as there is between sport and a summer breeze.
America's Best Canoes
Canoe Cushions and Furnishings
Surf Boards and Surf Horse*
Beach Umbrellas
Marine Binoculars
Surf Mattresses  - Swimming Wings
Life Preservers
Outrigger Engines
"Where the Blazed Trail Crosses the Boulevard."
Chronicling America
New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, June 16, 1920, Image 13
Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC
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Note: A&F stands for Abercrombie and Fitch.

East Oregonian
Pendleton, July 7, 1920, page 2.


HONOLULU, H.T., July 7

Viscountess Furness, wife the head of the great British shipbuilding firm which bears her husband's name, had a narrow escape from drowning, recently when she was thrown from an outrigger canoe in the surf  off Waikiki beach.
When the viscountess and two of her woman friends were thrown from the plunging canoe, they were reacued by Captain A. Reavley of Viscount Furness yacht Sapphire and a Hawaiian boy and supported until lifeguards came to their assistance on surf boards. .
The titled British visitors spent three days 1n Honolulu aboard their yacht which is on a world tour

Chronicling America
East Oregonian : E.O. (Pendleton, Umatilla Co., Or.) 1888-current, July 07, 1920, DAILY EDITION, Image 2

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The Evening World.
New York, July 17, 1920, page 8.

Peculiar Traits of Hawaiian,
Whose Life Has Been Spent Mostly in the Water-
Uncle Sam's Swimming Team, Aided by Star Honolulu Men Fishes, Should Make Clean Sweep at Olympic Games Next Month at Antwerp.

By Robert Edgren.
Copyright, 1920, by The Press Publishing Co, (The New York World)

"Why, no," said Duke Kahanamoku, "I never went down after sharks with a knife.
That isn't done in Hawaii now, you know.
The ancients did it, but they were better men in those days.
They used to take a knife and swim out and go down and kill sharks, according to the old stories.
But none of the boys cares to try anything like that.
It's a little too dangerous.
It is done in some of the islands down south still, but I've never seen it."

Duke Kahanamoku is the greatest of all the native swimming champions of Hawaii.

He will be one of America's strongest contenders in the swimming sprints at the Olympic Games at Antwerp.
The "Duke" is an Olympic champion.
He won the one hundred meter swimming event in the Olympic at Stockholm in 1912.
In the Olympic trials he has just broken Norman Ross's world's record for 100 meters by covering the distance in one minute one-fifth second, four-fifths of a second better than the old mark.
A swimmer lasts longer than most athletes.
That is because swimming
is almost as natural as walking.
least it's that way in the South Seas.

"I hardly remember whether I
learned how to walk or how to swim first," the Duke told me.
"One of
the first things I remember is taking a cracker box board and pushing it ahead of me to swim out into the surf, using It like a surf board.
can take a small board and go a long way.
I used to swim out, turn around
and come back through the surf.
terward I used a surf board, of course.
Why, I never did go into
training for a race but once, and that time I overtrained and went stale.


"My training consists of going out and swimming around, I'd be in thte water all day.
There's nothing else
to do down there.
I swim all the
year around at Honolulu.
The water
doesn't change much.
Sometimes I
take a board along and go far out and stay a long time.
Sometimes I go out to sea in a canoe.
I'm always around the water.

"How did you begin training for racing?
I suppose you raced quite a while before you began to win and break records," I suggested.

Kahanamoku laughed.
"No," he said, "I didn't begin training, and I never did much racing without winning.
In fact, I swam my first race in 1911, when I was eighteen or nineteen.
In that first meet I won my three races and broke two world's and one American record: world's records for the 50 and 220-yard events.
Sine that time I have held all the records up to 440 yards, but I am not a fast long distance swimmer.
My best distance is the sprint, about 100 yards.

"A funny thing about my swimming," went on the Duke, "is that from the time I was a kid I used a modern crawl kick.
That's supposed to be a modern invention, but I used it naturally- always used it.
Nobody ever showed it to me.
I swam that way the first time I pushed a cracker board ahead of me and swam out into the surf.
The fact is there's no such thing as a modern way to swim.
I have no doubt the ancient Hawaiians used every stroke we know and perhaps had better swimming form than we'll ever have."


"Do you diet in any way, as a matter of training?" I asked.
"No," said the Duke. "I always eat whatever I feel like eating.
I eat fruit, vegetables, steak anything.
I eat pie and ice cream if I want it.
I eat fish.
Sometimes I eat fish raw, in our ancient way.

"We have many kinds of fish in Hawaii, l think I like steak as well as anything.
I often eat steak.
I eat vegetables and fruit but I am no vegetarian; positively not."

Whatever he eats, and however he trains, Duke Kahanamoku is an ideal athlete in appearance and a consistent performer in competition.
Like many other Hawaiians, he clearly shows breeding.
His head is very well shaped, his hair thick and black- I noticed that he rubbed grease into it well after his Olympic tryout races
in salt water.
His features are regular, his forehead high, ears perfectly shaped, eyes well shaped, open, quick and intelligent, his nose straight and his mouth strong and expressive.
His hands are rather small and his fingers long, slender and well shaped.
His feet are big, broad, and shaped like paddles, an inheritance from many centuries of swimming ancestors.
His toes are broad and long.
One could almost Imagine that a few more generations of swimming champions in the Kahanamoku line of descent would develop web feet.

I never saw a man with a finer torso.
His shoulders are wide and well muscled.
His body tapers neatly to the small waist, with the perfect muscle lines so often shown in statues of Greek athletes.
His legs above the knee are thick and perfectly round, the muscles not standing out in relief, and no ridges of muscles showing.
His knees are exactly in proportion to the thighs and well shaped calf, neither too light or too heavy.
These legs, like his powerful arms, make a perfect driving machine for his swimming stroke.

The most extraordinary development, however, is that of the Duke's
pectoral muscles, the breast muscles that pull the arms down as they are pulled down in a swimming stroke.
These muscles stand out in high relief.
They are, I think, developed to
about three times the thickness of the pectoral muscles of the average trained athlete.
It Is something like
the very unusual development of the breast muscles of a duck or a quail- heavy but fast flying birds.
It is hard to beat a man like the Hawaiian, bred from generations of swimming ancestors, and living almost as much in the water as on dry land.

Chronicling America
The evening world. (New York, N.Y.) 1887-1931, July 17, 1920, Final Edition, Image 8
Image and text provided by The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundation
Persistent link:

a cracker box board ...
using It like a surf board.

The cracker box board was probably one panel from a timber biscuit and cracker box in common use 1900-1940.

The example, left, by F.S. Wertz and Company of Reading, Pennsylvania, measures 18" x 13" x 13".
A board from this box would be 18'' x 13'', a very suitable size for a hand-board.

Image from

Also see

East Oregonian
Pendleton, July 26, 1920, page 2


Dad may talk of "the big one that got away," but Bobbie "caught" his fish and hangs onto it.
Bobbies' big fish is made from balsa wood- lighter even than cork.
It makes a fine surf board, ridding like a bubble on the ocean.

Chronicling America
East Oregonian : E.O. (Pendleton, Umatilla Co., Or.) 1888-current, July 26, 1920, DAILY EDITION, Image 2

Image and text provided by University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR
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Evening Public Ledger.
Philadelphia, August 23, 1920, page 20.

The life guards are always willing to teach the way to use the surf boards.
- Ledger Photo Service.

Chronicling America
Evening public ledger. (Philadelphia [Pa.]) 1914-1942, August 23, 1920, NIGHT EXTRA, Image 20
Image and text provided by Penn State University Libraries; University Park, PA
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The Sun
Sydney, 26 September 1920, page 20.

Notes from the Shows
Marie Doro is featured in "Twelve Ten," which will bo screened this week at the Lyric.
She is an enthusiastic surfer, and is remarkably skilful with the surf-board, on which she comes in on the crest of a breaker standing on her head.

1920 'Notes from the Shows', The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), 26 September, p. 20. , viewed 30 Mar 2016,

Sunday Times
Sydney, 3 October 1920, p. 19.

To-morrow a Record Crowd is Expected on the Beaches

If the weather is propitious, the surf-bathing season will commence to-morrow.
Eight-Hour Day has always been recognised as the first day of Summer, though it is often marked by gales of wind and dropping temperatures.
But given sunshine and not too much wind, Sydney's thousands of. surfers will return to their favorite beaches to-morrow for the first time this season.
There are likely to be many blistered legs and shoulders to-morrow night for the tan of last season has faded.
Where surfers hibernate during the Winter has never been definitely known
Certain it is they sigh for the return of the sun during the whole length of the cold weather.
Some hardy souls who live in close proximity to the beaches surf all the year round, and decline to recognise Winter's right to take charge of the sea shores and pound them with his gales and storms.
With many it amounts almost to religion; others do it for health, though a warm bed on a cold morning offers many allurements, it must be admitted.
By Lantern Light

If you have the hardihood to venture out you may see these enthusiasts taking their morning dip.
Few admirers have they and fewer spectators.
You see them wrapped in several overcoats and towels, with goose-flesh and tinged blue noses, bearing a storm lantern through the pale dawn, and armed with pick-axe to break the ice.
Of course, it is not so bad as that, but that is the mental picture of a Summer surfer who has to ride for an hour in trams filled with lightly-clad but perspiring humanity to reach a beach.
Surf bathing as a sport has one fundamental attraction which others lack— it is so essentially clean.
Its effects, too, are different.
There is not the resulting tiredness and aching muscles which other sorts leave as a legacy an reminder of a game well played.
Swimming tends to loosen the muscles, and the actual process of shooting the breakers brings a feeling of elation which no, other pastime supplies.
This applies more particularly to the tall shoots breaking in deep water.
There is no bump in them, but the surfer falls with the speed of an express train, head, shoulders and chest clear of the water; the rush through the air, and the stinging massage of the water as the body tears through it is more heady than good champagne.
The influences of mock modesty and prudery did their best to kill surfbathing in its infancy.
They declined to recognise its health and mental attributes.
It was contended, with other things, too, that the past-time was very dangerous.


But the surf clubs have lessened the risks.
They were inaugurated by a few big hearted men in the various ocean-side suburbs.
As surf-bathing became more popular and the tens of swimmers became thousands, they had, of necessity, expanded accordingly.
They invented methods of rescue and taught the do's and don'ts of life-saving to all who would learn.
Soon the State Government recognised the value of the work, and a small sum was included in the Estimates to subsidise the pioneers.
Though it was hopelessly inadequate, it helped, and drew attention to the need of funds.


Now, there is scarcely a beach without its life-saving club.
The big beaches, like Bondi and Steyne, have two, and their membership is increasing rapidly.
Some already have 150 to 200 members.
The majority of the life-savers are ex-soldiers.
Unofficially, this is a qualification for admission to many of the clubs.
Young men who were not old enough to enlist, or those whose family affairs forbade it, are not ruled out; but the slacker is black-balled or expelled for a breach of regulations.
Eagerness for Rescue

The Surf-Bathing Life-Saving Association is the outcome of their affiliation
This Association has done its utmost to foster the esprit-de-corps in the clubs, for from this spirit - the desire to be first in efficiency and top of the list in the number of rescues - come better-trained and keener members
Shields and medals are competed for annually in premiership tests, which are conducted much like football and cricket competitions.
Carnivals are held on every beach which boasts a club, and teams from all other clubs in the Association arrive with their partisans and strive for victory
Newcastle sends its representatives to Sydney, and the compliment is returned.
Hard-and-fast rules are made which members must observe.
Exemplary conduct and refusal to recognise danger are necessities, and swimming power must be proved to the satisfaction of elected examiners.
Until he has passed life-saving and resuscitation tests, a club member is not allowed to undertake patrol duty.
During the workaday week an official life-saver guards the surfers; but on Saturday afternoons and Sundays the clubs give this duty their special attention.
From 6 6 p.m. a team is in constant attendance, handy to their reel.
They work in two-hour shifts, and failure to appear on patrol incurs a penalty.
This matter is regarded in a very serious light by the life-savers, for a man absent may mean a surfer drowned, and it is their desire To produce a nil death roll at the end of the season.
For practice purposes, six men comprise a team.
Five do the work and one acts as the victim.
Six men are therefore always on duty, so that the extra man can swim but unhampered by the belt and support the person in difficulty until the beltman arrives.
They may appear to the unthoughtful to be a little officious, these brown men with club badges on their costumes ; but this is seldom the case.
When they say, 'Don't go in there,' it is because they know what they are talking about; know the tricks and treacheries of the rollers on their beach.
There are people who affect to regard these men with derision, as poseurs earning easy glory ; but they have vindicated their existence, and the total of human lives saved by their efforts is impressive
Last Sunday the North Bondi Club made the first save of the season.
They rescued a man who had been washed out by a side current and had swallowed more water than he could conveniently carry.
Municipal Councils are at last beginning to recognise the value of the beaches in their suburbs, and not any too soon.
Dressing-shed accommodation is inadequate on nearly every one of them, and the rectification of this will have as much to do with increasing the popularity of a beach as the excellence of its shoots.
For a long time the popular idea of the correct method of surf-bathing was to leap over the combers after they had broken, or to be knocked, over and rolled by them if they were sufficiently strong.
Opinions differ concerning the identity of the man who first shot the breakers in Sydney; controversies about it still rage, so no names will be mentioned. But one morning bathers at Manly were startled to see a man riding in on the foam.
Others to whom they related the incident were frankly incredulous - until they saw for themselves.
Emulation followed, and other beaches saw the same spectacle, until - as at present - the majority of surfers have acquired the art.
It is simplicity itself - merely a matter of judgment and picking the right wave,
The pull of the water at the base of the wave and the slight curl in its centre tell the surfer when to mount.
All he has to do is to propel himself for a few strokes, stiffen his body, and - go forward and downward.
But beware the deadly dumper!
This may be recognised by the manner in which the flat water rushes out and adds itself to the volume of the breaker.
Then the wave, instead of having a back sloping front wall, describes a half-circle, and the surfer who boards it sees an expanse of hard sand, covered by very few inches of water, waiting to receive him.
Down he goes, willy-nilly, generally with arms flung wide for self-preservation.
When the dumper hits the sand it rebounds all ways at once, and the would be shooter goes with it.
And as hi arms and legs cannot leave his trunk, he finds that each limb wants to take a separate course, while his head does not seem to be anywhere in particular.
Crowning ignominy, when he regains the surface and gasps for air, he notices that everyone within range is staring and laughing at him, for, to the surfer, the spectacle of another being dumped is as humorous as is the sight of a man slipping on a banana skin to the urchin who laid the trap.
The Daring Spirits

Boards long and short and canoes have become favorites with the more daring men of the combers.
Here, again, practice makes perfect.


[Reprinted in Le miroir des sports, Paris, 2 December 1920, below.]

The short board is held by the hands in front of the head, and helps when the shoots are not very forceful.
But they are more dangerous than useful,and a blow from one, borne along by a wave, is staggering.
The 9ft. long boards are an imported idea.
Honolulu invented them, as far as the surf is concerned; but many Sydney siders are now proficient in their use.
Their main advantage is to free the body from the water and retain the shoot until it is a mere froth of foam.
The board shooter lays on his board and uses his hands paddle fashion to mount the shoot.
Then, if he is proficient, he kneels or stands on it and guides it with his feet.
This involves niceties of balance, and is a hard and painful occupation for the beginner.
If he gets too far forward the board nose-dives, and is thrown clear of the water; the surfer goes with it.
If he stands on the extreme back edge, it will probably rise up and hit him violently on the nose.
In any case, the change to the upright position must be accomplished quickly or the wooden steed will reel sideways and throw its rider.
A few - a very few - have mastered the art of standing on their heads on the boards.
Canoes have the same strange ways.
"One dumper, one canoe," has become a proverb, for they are necessarily of light fabric, and if they hit the sand with any force, crumple immediately.


Of the beneficial effects of the sport there can be no doubt.
Some blame ear trouble to the sand which may gather on the ear-drum ; but that is easily obviated by inserting cotton wool or rubber-plugs.
Small, weedy children have become barrel-chested giants by constant surfing, and the crowds of husky youngsters that may be seen on any beach is sufficient answer to a query regarding its effects on the rising generation.
Sun-baking, also, must open the pores of the skin and free excrescences that are better out of the body.
Nothing is perfect, and surfing is not all blue water sunlight and white foam.
It has its drawbacks, the chief of which are marauding sharks who raid the beaches in hopes of a satisfying meal
Fortunately they can be seen before they get too close inshore, but the 'sharkbaits,' the surfers who wait on the extreme breaker line for big shoots, run many risks.
Some of the life-saving clubs have skeleton towers in which are stationed a man and a bell.
It is his duty to watch for man-eaters and warn
the surfers by ringing his bell should they appear.
Blue-bottles are uncomfortably intimate and affectionate.
They delight in draping their long, cotton-like antennæ around bathers' shoulders, much to said
bathers' disgust, for the touch stings, and a half-yard of antennæ around the neckleaves a necklace of blisters.
Ammonia and blue-bags are generally employed to stop the pain.
The poison seems to affect some people seriously.
Ladies have been known to collapse after having been stung.
Undertows and currents must not be forgotten.
They are the greatest danger of all, and make their appearance on a beach overnight.
The changing
positions of sandbanks create them, and they will exhaust the strongest swimmer if he knows not how to beat them.
It is quite useless to fight against the main strength of a current; always try to swim across or around it, and, if your strength is going in the struggle, raise one hand and float on your back.
Just as fast as leg and arm muscle can propel him, a life-saver will be on his way towards you and your troubles will soon
be over.
Our Best Girl

The main adornment of our beaches;that which makes the water seem more blue and the sun more bright, is the Australian surf girl.
Love of life and vitality are expressed in her every action, and the mere male can only envy the sea's privilege of kissing her with his spray and putting his figurative arm around her very material rounded limbs and body, with their soft curves and winking dimples.
The typical surf girl worries little about pink and white complexions.
Red, sun-burned noses are prevalent during the early Summer months, but dabs of
powder cover them.
As the seasonprogresses, they become as brown as themen, and it is good to see the wetgleam on their tan skin as they race
along the firm beach or laze luxuriously on the warm sand, laughing for the sheer joy of life.
Bathing girls have evolved, too, along with life-savers and surf boards.
Originally they were rather unbeautiful and frumpish, with loose wisps of wet hair
draggling across their faces and brightred, ill-fitting costumes spoiling the lines of the best figures.
Canadian costumes of good cut, and close-fitting rubber caps later presented the female as a trim, neat creature, but they have blossomed still more.
Skirted costumes have re-appeared, but with what a difference.
They are of
unshrinkable material, cut to fit and tastefully embellished with harmonious colors.
Newer ones are made of jersey cloth, all in one piece, with a skirt hanging from the waist.
Bathing caps, too, have assumed fantastic and alluring shapes, with tassels, knobs and rubber flowers appearing in the most unexpected places, while large, oiled fabric umbrellas exclude the would-be pirate.
Surf shoes protect soft feet from coke and stones on the beach, but the American idea of stockings finds little favor.
Cretonne sunshades are the latest beach fashion; they are more durable than the paper ones, which are apt to be ripped by strong breezes.
Water proof capes are also expected to make an appearance.
To carry towels and, we presume, powder puffs, there are bags of diverse shapes and colors, gaily flowered and lined with waterproof material.
But in
any costume, cap or cape, the Girl on the Beach is adorable.

1920 'The Cool Combers of the pacific ', Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 3 October, p. 19. , viewed 17 Apr 2016,

Smith's Weekly
Sydney, 30 October 1920, page 8.

The first surf board was used In Australia some years before "Duke" Kahanamoku arrived.
Saw Alec. Wickam use one shaped like a cigar at Deewhy Beach in 1903.
It was not as large as that now in vogue, being about 4 feet long.
Alec, was an adept, and could often carry a man on his back. — "A.W."

1920 'SPORT AND SPORTSMEN', Smith's Weekly (Sydney, NSW : 1919 - 1950), 30 October, p. 8. , viewed 06 Apr 2019, 

Sydney, Friday 12 November 1920, page 13.
By Beltman
Programmes for Deewhy. North Steyne
and Collaroy carnivals have been drawn up, and will be all shortly in the hands of club secretaries.
Collaroy have a
novel feature — a surf-board race.
for North Steyne close with the hon. secretary of S.L.S. Association on November 29, and for Collaroy at the same place on December 13.

1920 'ON THE BEACHES', Arrow (Sydney, NSW : 1916 - 1933), 12 November, p. 13. , viewed 30 Mar 2016,

South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus
Friday, 12 November 1920, page 11.

North Wollongong Surf and Lifesaving Club will open the surfing season on Sunday afternoon next, and with visiting clubs will give a non-competitive display of rescue and resuscitation, alarm reel race, surfboard dismay, etc.
Members of the team participating in the Championship Shields will take part.

1920 'Boxing.', South Coast Times and Wollongong Argus (NSW : 1900 - 1954), 12 November, p. 11. , viewed 30 Mar 2016,

South Bend News-Times.
Indiana, November 15, 1920, page 2.
The Press club will meet in the journalism room of the library on Monday evening to hear Stuart Carroll speak on the editorial angle of the newspaper.
Mr. Carroll is an old student.

His versification finds resting place on the walls of many campus rooms and many student admirers of the department of Journalism are interested in his appearance at the Press club meeting.

The Mildred Leo Clemens company of Hawaiian artists proved the most interesting concert of the year
at Washington hall Saturday night.
Five natives presented a program of vocal, instrumental, not to mention terpischorial entertainment, which held the audience long after the usual hour.
Miss Clemens delivered a lecture on the Island, illustrated by her own photograph and moving pictures, showing excellent views of a volcano in action and molten lava in close-up.

The famous beach at Waikiki was presented with exciting pictures of the native sports of swimming and surf-board riding.

Washington Hall
The Story of Notre Dame: Washington Hall
Chronicling America
South Bend news-times. (South Bend, Ind.) 1913-1938, November 15, 1920, Morning Edition, Image 2
Image and text provided by Indiana State Library
Persistent link:

The Newcastle Sun
Friday 19 November, 1920, page 3.
Cooks Hill Athletes
isitors to the 'Bar' Beach are being treated to some fine displays of surf-board shooting by members of the club, more particularly by ''Duke" Sherriff, who is rapidly accruing the skill of his namesake, Duke Kahanamoku.

1920 'SWIMMING', The Newcastle Sun (NSW : 1918 - 1954), 19 November, p. 3. , viewed 30 Mar 2016,

Sunday Times
Sydney, 28 November 1920, page 16.

Tree Frog (Manly) is a new member, and still another candidate for the Q.C.:
"I like Manly for the surfing.
I have joined the junior Life Saving Club, and also the swimming club in connection with the school.
Before we came to Sydney we lived on an island in Torres Strait, where we were the only white people.
The bathing there was good, but the waters were so protected with coral reefs that we never had the breakers as we have them here.
Shooting the breakers is a favorite amusement of mine, and my brother Jack arid I never miss a chance of taking our surf-boards out."

1920 'THE MAILBAG', Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 28 November, p. 16. , viewed 30 Mar 2016,

Le miroir des sports,
Paris, Wednesday, December 2, 1920, issue 22.

An article entitled Sports athlétiques et nautiques en Australie (Athletic and Aquatic Sports in Australia).
The trick of the Board, printed in Sydney's
Sunday Times, 3 October 1920, p. 19, above.

Noted by Hervé Manificat, in the Surf Blurb, May 2016.


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Geoff Cater (1997-2019) : Newspapers, 1920.