home catalogue history references appendix 
newspapers :  1860-1869 

Newspapers : 1860-1869.


See: Newspapers
1860 1862 1864 1868 1869

Honolulu, May 26, 1860, page 2.

The Birthday of the Prince of Hawaii.

On Monday last, the good people of Honolulu went to work to enjoy themselves in that determined and emphatic manner which they know so well how to display when they set about it.
The Canoe Race.
No sooner was the boat race over than the canoes, six in number, started to run over the same course as the boats in the previous race.
This was a new feature in the spirts of the day, and, in fact, in Hawaiian sports of any kind since the times when the canoe and the surf-board were household words in Hawaii nei, and synonyms with strength and litheness.
The prize run for was a purse of $50, which was won by a canoe owned by the King and pulled by five fishermen, some of whom might have handled the paddle in the days of Kamehameha the Great.

Chronicling America
Polynesian. (Honolulu [Oahu], Hawaii) 1844-1864, May 26, 1860, Image 2
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI

Persistent link:

Union County Star and Lewisburg Chronicle.
Pennsylvania, January 17, 1862, page 1.

From the Linn Riles

Last Tuesday evening about 8 o'clock
"Easy there, it's all right, quiet," and at once the enfusion appeared to subside.
Mr Carpener returned reporting that he had rescued four men, three clinging to the surf-boards and one to the wheel, nearly exhausted.
Some one on the steamer had given the order to start it up, just as he arrived ; he called to them to stop.
A man in his shirt-sleeves on the steamer asked him, "Who the devil are you."
If I had you by the throat I'd show you who I am."
His ordering him to stop, saved the man clinging to the wheel and others from death.
Chronicling America
Union County star and Lewisburg chronicle. (Lewisburg, Pa.) 1859-1864, January 17, 1862, Image 1
Image and text provided by Penn State University Libraries; University Park, PA
Persistent link:

This early and most obscure report apparently (the document is barely legible), records the sinking of a Union vessel and subsequent rescue of some of the crew, one supported by the wheel (as flotsom) and "three clinging to the surf-boards."

The Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News
26 August 1864, page 2.


With the aborigines of the Glenelg district, I was never fortunate enough to obtain a friendly interview ; nor have I myself seen them very closely. Some members of our party (1863), however, were forced Into conflict with them on one occasion. Their camping places, their shell-engraving, some of their weapons, and moi'e of their ordinary implements alford an insight, limited it is true, into their disposition
and mode of life,

To a wandering habit they seem as prone as the natives of the southern shores of Australia ; they do not display that terror of darkness so
often observed even in the settled districts of the Colony: these natives travel at night occasionally by choice; nor is this much to be wondered at when we remember how cool and pleasant night-travelling must be, to a people thoroughly acquainted with this country. But it would appear from the examination of old encampments that they travel only in large companies or tribes: not frequently, but periodically. The physical geography of the district indicates at once the necessity for these regular changes of locality. Daring the summer or rainy season, all the luxuriant low country through which the Glenelg River and its more tributaries flow, as well as the majority of the values, are either inundated or so circumscribed by the overflowing of the streams, as to compel the abundant game to change their pasture ground from the lowlands to the hill». Thither, therefore, the aboriginal must follow, or incur great labor to procure his sustenance. Accordingly the cave habitations of the higher country, e.g. those on the watershed of the streams flowing into the Glenelg and Prince Regent's river, are now tenanted with numerous families who here find their food driven, like themselves, from the lower country. At the termination of the first or down-pouring summer rains, when the earth is again elad with the most luxuriant verdure, the game disperse over the wide spread pastures and tli

natives then revisit the sea-coast and the river' shore, where fish and an entire change of food await them. Somewhat later in the spring, towards,the end of April, the sandy beaches of the islands and the main claim a visit, if only to collect the rich food stored for them by the turtle ; for this purpose, the native rafts are

refitted, and islands and distant sand-beaches must re-echo the mirth and gladness of a people rejoicing in a most primitive and simple modo of life. To some of the smaller islands in

Collier Bay, it is probable, from the finding of old shells, species of either Strombus or Triton, of an enormous size,-frequently l8 inches in length, with a capacity of nearly ono gallon, they are obliged to carry water to their feasting places ; at one of these sites remains of turtle carapaces and eggs, pods of the indigenous beans and peas, bones of birds, fish and kan- garoo amply testify to. the abundance and varied character of food supply on these festive occasions.

At all their camping-places wo obsei'ved cracking stones, left as last used, the smaller upon the largor; these stones are used for breaking the harder kind of nuts, those of tile palm, for instance, as well as for the more intricate varieties of shell-fish-Trochus and Murex-which defy the simple means of ex- traction which serve in the case of oysters, mussels, and other bivalves. Every encamp- ment includes many separate fire-plaees, with at least one pair of cracking stones at each, and beds, consisting either of a few tulls of grass pulled up by the roots, or, more rarely, a piece or two of the cajeputi or other bark, affording sleeping accommodation for 5 or 6 individuals around each fire. In one instance upwards of one hundred of these fire-places were counted in one group, extending over nearly threo

quarters of a mile of ground ; and by every . indication, they were of the same date. Only three huts, worthy of the name, were seen throughout the whole district ; and rehmins of only one rude shelter of boughs placed slant ingly against a horizontal pole.. The remains of the kind of food used at the vartious camping places clearly indicate the season of the year when each site has been,selected.

In the construction of their rafts, on which Ihey cross wide inlets of the sea and rivers subject to great tidal influences, they show a greater degree of skill than natives dwelling only a few degrees of latitude to the southward. These rafts are made of either mangrove OB palm poles about 7 or 8 feet in length ; the diameter of the thicker end is about 3^ inches ; both ends of the poles are nicely sharpened with l their keen-edged stone axes, and only such

sticks are selected when the raft is constructed, as are naturally bent to the required shape. The poles vary in number from 3 to 9 ; and in the case of the rafts that fell into.our possession, they are fastened together with pegs of pine. About the centre of the raft, a larger pine peg projects on either side to a distance ol about 7 inches : this is used as a support to the feet of the native mariner. These rafts, are so light that a single individual can easily carry them. A very rude single or double-bladed paddle ia used to propel them. There was no attempt at decoration to be perceived in those we found. (See Journal, 30th July, 1863.) On the larger rafts, those of 9 poles, two or three adults might safely cross such rivers as the Glenelg and Prince Regent's, and even, under favourable circumstances, Collier and other Bays.

Their arms consist of stone-headed spears, which Sir George Groy states " they throw with great strength and precision;"-the womera or throwing stick,-the kiley, an in- ferior kind of bomerang,-clubs, aud stone hatchets.

In a knowledge of the practice of the fine arts, sculpture (intaglio), painting and en- graving, they very far excel all aboriginal tribes at present known upon this vast island. As to the last mentioned, engraving, if specimens, somewhat inferior, it is true, had not been found commonly in the possession of the tribes about Roebuck Bay, I must have attributed them, as articles of barter, to the islanders of the Arafura and other neighbouring seas. One specimen exhibits a neatly engraved portrait of a native man decorated with the war symbol,-a half- moon figure, in white, covering the forehead and extending down to the zygomaj. The other is what might be termed a right-lined arabesque, composed of 3, 4, and 5 sided figures, of two or more serieB of parallel lines, beautifully blended in a lace-like pattern. Both engra- vings are on the pearl-oyster shell of the coast,, cut to a depth of about .025 of an inch, and filled up with a black pigment, composed of gum and charcoal.

With regard to painting and sculpture our information is due to Sir G. Grey. Our line of travelling did not, during either of our visits to the district, lead to the discovery of fresh specimens, or conduct us to the sites of those localities already described. This is Grey's account of the specimen of sculpture :-" I waa moving on, when we observed the profile of a human face and head cut out in a sand-stone

rock which fronted the cave ; this rock was so . hard, that to have removed such a large por- tion of it with no better tool than a knife and hatchet made of stone, such as the Australian, natives generally possess, would have been a work of very great labor. The head was two feet in length, and sixteen inches in breadth in the broadest part ; the depth of the profile in- creased gradually from the edges where it was nothing, to the centre where it was an inch and a half ; the ear was rather badly placed, but otherwise the whole of the work was good, and far superior to what a savage race could be sup- posed capable of executing. Vol. 1. p. 205-6,

Of the native paintings discovered on the roof an vails of caves, the same traveller

On page 3

writes (the quotation is abridged) " I suddenly saw a most extraordinary figure peering down upon me. Upon examination, this proved to be a drawing at the entrance to a cave, which, on entering, I found to contain, besides, many remarkable paintings. On the sloping roof, the principal figure was drawn ; in order to produce the greater effect, the rock about it was painted black, and the figure itself colored with the most vivid red and white. It thus appeared to stand out from the rock ; and I was certainly rather surprised at the moment I first saw this gigantic head and upper part of a body bending over and staring grimly down at me." " Its head was encircled by bright red rays ; some- thing like the rays which one sees proceeding from the sun, when depicted on the sign-board of a public house ; inside of this carno a broad stripe of very brilliant red, which was coped by lines of white, but both inside and outside of this red space, were narrow striped of a still deeper red, intended probably to mark its boundaries ; the face was painted vividly white, and the eyes black, being however surrounded by red and yellow lines ; the body, hands, and arms were outlined in red,-the body being curiously painted with red stripes and bars."

" Upon the rock which formed the left hand wall of this cave, and which partly faced you on entering, was a very singular painting, vividly colored, representing four heads joined together. From the mila expression of the countenances, I imagined them to represent females, and they appeared to be drawn in such a manner, and in such a position, as to look up at the principal figure which I have before de- scribed; each had a very remarkable head- dress, colored with a deep bright blue, and one had a necklace on. Both of the lower figures had a sort of dress, painted with red in the same manner as that of the principal figure, and one of them had a band round her waist.

Each of the four faces was marked by a totally distinct expression of countenance, and although none of them had mouths, two, I thought, were otherwise rather good looking. The whole painting was executed on a white ground."

" The next most remarkable drawing in the cave was an ellipse, 3 feet by 1ft. lOin. ; the outside line was of a deep blue color, the body of a bright 3'ollow dotted over with red lines and spots, whilst across it ran two transverse lines of blue. Upon this ground there was a kangaroo in the act of feeding, two stone spear heads, and two black balls ; one of the spear- heads was flying to the kangaroo, and one away from it ; so that the whole subject probably constituted a sort of charm by which the luck of an enquirer in killing game could bo ascertained."

" There was another rather humorous sketch which represented a native in the act of carry- ing a kangaroo. Height of the man, -3 feet. The number of drawings in the cave could not altogether have heen less than fifty or sixty."

" Another very striking piece of art was ex- hibited in the little cloomy cavities situated at the back of the main cavern. The stamp of a hand and arm waa by some means transferred to a rock: this outline of the hand and arm was then painted black, and the rock about it white, so that on entering that part of the cave, it appeared as if a human hand and arm were projecting through a crevice admitting light."

From a cave south of Grey's ford across the Upper Glenelg, on the roof, " the principal painting was the figure of a man 10 feet G inches in length, clothed from the chin down- wards in a red garment, which reached to to the wrists and ankles ; beyond this red dress the feet and hands protruded, and were badly

executed. The face and head of the li ure were enveloped in a succession, circular of bandages or rollers.or whatappeared to be painted to represent such. These were colored red, yellow, and white ; and the eyes were the only features represented on the face. Upon the highest bandage or roller, a series of lines were painted in red, but although so regularly done as to indicate that they have some meaning, it was impossible to tell whether they were intended to depict written characters, or some ornament for the head. This figure brings to mind the description of the Prophet Ezekicl, chap, xxiii., 14, 15."

"Two other instances of Australian caves, w'lich contain paintings, have been recorded. The first is by Captain Flinders and the second by Mr. Cunningham in King's voyage. The caves found by Flinders in Chasm Island, in the Gulf of Carpentaria ; those found by Mr. Cunningham were on Clack's Island, N.E. coast of Australia."

" In the painted caves on the N.W. coast, five colors were used : red, an ochre, several shades'; yellow, an ochre, blue, probably of vegetable origin ; black, charcoal ; and white, a pipe-clay. With the exception of the blue these colors are all known to the natives of the whole continent. They are all mixed with a resinous gum insoluble in water." Vol. 1, 202-264.

These natives are in the habit of cutting rude and imperfect figures upon the bark of trees, as do the natives of Australia generally, But in the vicinity of Brecknock Harbor, in several instances, we observed some remarkable outlines of alligators, kangaroos, &c" more carefully executed. The baobab (Adansonia Gregorii) seems to be the favorite tree for the receiving of these pictorial outlines ; the selec- tion may¡ arise, perhaps, from their experience of the permanency of such works when carved upon this tree. On one, near the north-eastern base of Mount Lookover, in Brecknock Harbor, an aboriginal artist, at some remote date, has depicted a somewhat caricatured delineation of two alligators. These outlines, although rude and exaggerated, are in some details correct to an unexpected degree ; for example, the artist has carefully distinguished the five carpáis from the four tarsah, an evidence of accuracy scarcely to be looked for ; the more so because, this work, compared with the more elaborate and highly finished paintings and shell engravings, is apparently the production of an amateur or a tyro. The outlines themselves are clear, and were deeply cut in the original bark, which has been replaced by a growth of a much darker color; they now have the appearance of being done in relievo. Much cannot be said in'praise of the perspective : nor is the alligator with the open mouth an evidence of study from the life.

In their form and appearance these natives «nay he described as tall, more robust and muscular than the aborigines of the southern districts, they are also broad-shouldered and have large heads with overhanging brows. They do not seem to use the symbol of man

hood-the extraction of a front tooth-so generally observed among tribes of the south- west and interior ; but the fashion of coarsely tattooing their bodies prevails. The hair is , generally worn gathered up in a knot at the back of the head. They wear no clothing. At the affray near George Water each man carried a bundle of very long spears and a womera. The only opportunity I had to observe their voices, occurred on our homeward passage through George Water in 1863, when the cooeeing of the native women on the beach J struck me as peculiarly soft and musical. They make a strong bark rope, We met with no instance of the almost white individuals, seen at two distant parts of the coast, by Grey and the officers of H.M.S. heagle. (May not this variation of color be attributed to occasional intercourse with the Malays ?)

1864 'NOTES ON THE ABORIGINES OF THE DISTRICT OF THE GLENELG.', The Perth Gazette and Independent Journal of Politics and News (WA : 1848 - 1864), 26 August, p. 2, viewed 18 September, 2014,

The Hawaiian Gazette.
Honolulu, April 29, 1868, page 4.

Hilo, April 6, 1868.

On Thursday last, April 2nd, as I was riding from Makuu to Hilo, and was in Panaewa woods, about 3 1/2 to 4 miles from the latter place, another shock of earthquake occurred at 3:45 P.M., by my watch, (some minutes after 4 by Hilo watches).
This was the heaviest shock we had yet experienced.
At Punaluu, at the moment of the shock, it seemed as if an immense quantity of lava had been discharged into the sea some distance from the shore, for almost instantly a terrible commotion arose, the water boiling and tossing furiously.
Shortly afterwards, a tremendous wave was sweeping up on the shore, and when it receded, there was nothing left of Punaluu! Every house, the big stone church, even tbe cocoanut trees all but two were washed away.
The num ber of lives lost is not yet ascertained.
All who were out fishing at the time perished, and many of those ashore.
A big chasm opened, running from the sea up into the mountain, down which it is said lava, mud, trees, ferns and rocks were rushing out into the sea.
The same wave that swept away Punaluu, also destroyed the villages of Ninole, Kawaa and Honuapo.
Not a house remains to mark the site of these places, except at Honuapo, where a small "hale halawa" on the brow of the hill, above the village, still stood on Friday last.
The large cocoannt grove at Honuapo, was washed away, as well as that at Punaluu.
A part of the big pali at Honuapo, on tbe road to Waiohinu, had tumbled into the sea, and people coming from thence are now obliged to take the mountain road through Hillea-uka.
I have just been told an incident that occurred at Ninole, during the inundation of that place.
At the time of the shock on Thursday, a man named Holoua, and his wife, ran out of the house and started for the hills above, but remembering the money he had in the house, the man left his wife and returned to bring it away.
Just as he had entered the house the sea broke on the shore, and, enveloping the building, first washed it several yards inland, and then, as the wave receded, swept it off to sea, with him in it.
Being a powerful man, and one of the most expert swimmers in that region, he succeeded in wrenching off a board or a rafter, and with this as a papa hee-nalu, (surf board), he boldly struck out for the shore, and landed safely with the return wave.
When we consider the prodigious height of the breaker on which he rode to the shore, (50, perhaps 60, feet), the feat seems almost incredible, were it not that he is now alive to attest it, as well as the people on the hillside who saw him.

Chronicling America
The Hawaiian gazette. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii]) 1865-1918, April 29, 1868, Image 4
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

The Pacific Commercial Advertiser.
Honolulu, August 7, 1869, page 3.

Heat Weather.
On Monday last the trades freshened, and before dark were blowing a gale, which continued up to Wednesday night.
The schooners Nettie Merrill, Ka Moi, Active, and Odd Fellow sailed for Maui during Monday, and experienced the full force of the gale during the night and following day.
Nettie Merrill, Capt. Cluney, reached Lahaina at 11 o'clock Tuesday forenoon, and found a heavy swell setting in from tbe southward, which broke across the entrance to the landing, rendering it unsafe to land the cargo.
On Wednesday morning the captain made an attempt to land some small packages, but his boat was upset by the rollers.
The captain and crew of the boat made an effort to swim ashore, but found it impossible on account of the undertow.
A boat was manned and put out from the beach, and was sterned into the breakers several times, but could not reach the now almost exhausted men.
The captain succeeded in getting hold of a floating package, and holding it before him used it as natives would a surf board, and the next roller carried him within reach of the rescuing party.
We are glad to be able to record that no lives were lost.
The Ka Moi passed in sight of Lahaina on Wednesday morning, the Odd Fellow at noon, and the Active reached Lahaina the same day.

Chronicling America
The Pacific commercial advertiser. (Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands) 1856-1888, August 07, 1869, Image 3
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link:

17 January 1862 : 
29 April 1868 : 
"Surfboard" Rescue, Pennsylvania?
Tsunami Surfing, Ninole, Hawaii. 


Return to Surfer Bio menu
home catalogue history references appendix

Geoff Cater (2010-2016) : Newspapers : 1860-1869.