pods for primates : a catalogue of surfboards in australia since 1900
home catalogue history references appendix

Return to History Menu surfresearch.com.au 
pacific exploration, 1519-1780 
polynesian surfriding
Appendix B :  European Exploration of the Pacific, 1519 -1780.

1519-1522 Ferdinand Magellan Victoria, Trinidad, three others
Flag: Spain.
Mission: Circumnavigation
Features: Entered the Pacific through the Straits of Magellan, Magellan killed on Mactan, voygage completed under Sebasitian del Cano.
First description of the outrigger canoe?
Locations: landed at Ladrone Islands (Guam?), hence the Phillipines.
1527 Savaveddra
Flag: Spain
Mission: Mexico to the Spice Islands
Locations: Discovers New Guinea
1567 Mendara Four ships
Flag: Spain
Mission: Pacific exploration.
Locations: Discovers New Guinea Six months in the Solomon Islands,
1595 Mendara Four ships
Flag: Spain, from Peru.
Mission: Pacific colonisation.
Features: Mendara died and the mission disintergrated, the remnants making Manila.
Locations: Discovered the Marquesas  Islands and Santa Cruz at the nortern end of the New Hebrides.
1605-1607 Quiros/Torres Three ships
Flag: Spain, from Mexico.
Mission: Search for Terra Australis, under Spanish flag
Features: Quiros returned east to Mexico, second in command Torres continued west, reached the Great Barrier Reef and navigated to the south of New Guinea through the Torres Straight
Locations: Stayed five weeks at Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides.
1642 Abel Tasman Two ships
Flag: Holland
Mission: Exploration of New Holland (Australia).
Features: Sailed east from Mauritius
Locations: Discovered Tasmania and New Zealand
1721 Roggeveen
Flag: Holland
Mission: Search for Terra Australis.
Features: Sailed west under Cape Horn.
Locations: Discovered Easter Island and Samoa
Byron Dolphin
June,1767 Samuel Wallace Dolphin
Flag: England
Mission: Circumnavigation.
Features:The first European to discover Tahiti
Locations: Harboured on the north coast at  Matavia Bay in June,1767.
Texts: Hawkesworth: Voyages (1773)

1768 Count Louis de Bougainville Etoile and  Boudeuse
Flag: France
Mission: Pacfic exploration
Features: Bougainville returns to Brest,16 March, 1769 accompanied by Ahutoru, the first Tahitian to go to Europe.
Locations: Hitiaa on the east (?) coast of Tahiti in September (?) 1768.
de Bougainville, Louis-Antoine
 The Hakluyt Society., London. 2002.
1st edition, volume No. 9, in Third Series of works issued by the Hakluyt Society.
Translated and edited by John Dunmore.
1776 James Cook Endeavour 
Flag: England
Mission: Observe the transit of Venus and subsequently explore and chart the south-west Pacific.
Features: Spectactually successful expedition, including the discovery of the east coast of Australia.
Locations: Matavia Bay Tahiti in ,1769.
Surfriding report by Joseph Banks, west coast Tahiti, 29th May 1769.
Texts: Hawkesworth: Voyages (1773)
Parkinson: Journal (1773)
Banks: Journal (1963)
1772  Boenechea
Mission: Exploration and Roman Catholic evangelism.
Features:The Spanish navigator ; four Tahitians set out for Lima.
Locations: November.1772  at Tautira, Society islands.
1772-1775 James Cook Resolution and  Discovery
Mission: Second voyage.
Features: Omai is taken to London.
Locations: Matavia Bay Tahiti in xx,1773.
James Cook: Journal 1772-75
Genesis Publications

A Voyage round the World with Captain James Cook in HMS Resolution.
Introduction and notes by Owen Rutter. Wood-engravings by Peter Barker-Mill.
The Golden Cockerel Press, 1944. First English edition
This eye-witness account of a three-year voyage with Cook by the Swedish botanist had not previously been printed in English. Sandford also enthuses over Barker-Mill's 'collection of engravings which were revolutionary, and a highly successful step forward in the adaptation of the wood-engraving medium to modern art.

DAVID, Andrew
The Charts and Coastal Views of Capt. Cook's Voyages
Volume II: The Voyage of the Resolution and Adventure 1772-1775
 Hakluyt Society London. 1992.

HOARE, Michael E.
THE TACTLESS PHILOSOPHER - Johann Reinhold Forster (1729-98)
Melbourne. 1976. Hawthorn Press., 1976. 1st Ed..
First biography of the German naturalist who sailed on HMS Resolution during the 2nd voyage of discovery of Captain Cook

1774  Boenechea
Flag: Spain
Mission: Second voyage.
Features: Returns from Peru with three Tahitians.
Locations: Matavia Bay Tahiti in xx,1773.

1776  Cook Resolution and  Discovery
Flag: England
Mission: Third voyage.
Features: Omai returns to Tahiti; Cook is massacred in Hawaii, 1779.
Locations: Matavia Bay Tahiti in xx,1773.
James Trevenen, (Ed. C.Lloyd):
A Memoir of James Trevenen
Navy Record Society, NRS Vol.101,1959.
Service in HMS Resolution, Discovery, Crocodile, Resistance, then the Imperial Russian Navy.

Pacific images: views from Captain Cook's third voyage.
Hawaiian Historical Society, Honolulu, 1999.
Original account written in 1779.

DIXON, George (Capt.).
A Voyage Round the World; but more particularly to the North-West Coast of America: Performed in 1785, 1786, 1787 and 1788, in The King George and Queen Charlotte, ... Dedicated by Permission, to Sir Joseph Banks, ...
Alex. Hogg, London, 1794
London 1789. (Repr. Amsterdam 1968)
Amsterdam. N. Israel & New York. Da Capo Press. 1968.

Portlock, Nathaniel:
A Voyage Round the World but more particularly to the North-West Coast of America, 1785-1788.
London: John Stockdale and George Goulding, 1789
Researched May 2007 - no surfriding content.

1788  Bligh Bounty
Flag: England
Mission: Export of breadfruit from tahiti to the West Indies.
Features: Mutiny on the Bounty, Bligh's open boat vovage.
Locations: Matavia Bay Tahiti in xx,1773.
Bligh, William:
The Voyage of the Bounty’s Launch as Related in William Bligh’s Despatch to the Admiralty and the Journal of John Fryer
 Introduction By Owen Rutter and engravings by Gibbings, Robert
London: The Golden Cockerel Press, 1934.

Conway, Christiane:
Letters from the Isle of Man - The Bounty-Correspondence of Nessy and Peter Heywood.
The Manx Experience.
 (2005). ISBN 1-873120-77-X.

1791 Pandora 
Flag: England
Mission: Arrest of the Bounty mutineers
Features: Mutineers arrested, Pandora shipwrecked on return.
Locations: Matavia Bay Tahiti in xx,1773.
1791  Vancouver
Flag: England
Features: Mutineers arrested, Pandora shipwrecked on return.
Locations:  arrives in Tahiti. 1791
Vancouver, George
Voyage of discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and round the world.
Da Capo Press, New York, 1968.
Original account written in 1794.

1792  Bligh  Providence and Assistant
Flag: England
Mission: Repeat of the breadfruit mission.
Locations:  arrives in Tahiti. 1792
Schreber, Roy (Editor):
Captain Bligh's Second Chance
UNSW Press, 2007.
The journal of Lt. George Tobin describes visits to South Africa, Tasmania, and Tahiti.
He returned circa 1788 as captain of HMAV Bounty , culminating in the infamous mutiny in1789.
Bligh was dispatched to Tahiti in 1791 on a mission to transport breadfruit to the West Indies, following the unsuccessful mission of from Tahiti  this time successfully completing the mission.
Flag: England
Mission: Conversion of the population First landing to Christinanity; .
Features: Arrival of James Wilson. end of the preat Venus colonial period
Locations:  arrives in Tahiti. 1792


polynesian surfriding : menu

Return to History Menu

home catalogue history references appendix

Compiled from

17 June. WALLIS.
The Dolphin
Discovery of Tahiti.

The Etoile and the Boudeuse
The French navigator lands in Hitiaa.

16 March.
Bougainville goes back to Brest, accompanied by Ahutoru, the first Tahitian to go to Europe.

17 April COOK.
The Endeavor
First landing at Venus Point

November. BOENECHEA.
The Spanish navigator lands at Tautira; four Tahitians set out for Lima.

COOK. Second voyage.
Omai is taken to London.

Boenechea comes back from Peru with three Tahitians.

COOK. Third voyage.
The Resolution and the Discovery
Omai returns.

Cook is massacred in Hawaii.

The Bounty


The Pandora
Mutineers arrested.

Mutiny of the Bounty.

VANCOUVER arrives in Tahiti.

Bligh returns.
The Providence and the Assistant.

Arrival of James Wilson.
Conversion of the population First landing to Christinanity; end of the preat Venus colonial period.

 The Pomare line and the end of an ancient society

Early English and French interference in Tahitian affairs is, historically speaking, as important as the name POMARE, as these two powers were vying for the possession of new colonies.

In fact, the political position held by the first Pomare could have been due to the arms agreement concluded between foreigners and a local chief.

Before the Europeans arrived, the Teva lineage were gathered at the feet of the great chief of Papara, and exerted absolute power. Recently, the name Teva, originally belonging to a kind of federation, has been used to designate the former dynasty, as they had no real patronym at that time.

But it would seem that the Teva, weakened by wars with other powerful chiefs, were finally dominated by the Pomare who were equipped with European arms.

Leaving aside this debate as to which of the two great royal families had the most right to govern, let us note that Tu, the future Pomare 1, was only a local chief whose rank was inferior to that of the Papara chiefs when Cook first arrived in Tahiti.  Furthermore, he tries to hide the fact that he comes from the Tuamotu Islands as he considers it a blot on his escutcheon, the Paumotu being considered inferior to the Tahibans.

However, during that epoch, genealogy was of prime importance and Pomare managed to vindicate his claim to greater powers because of the number of relatives he had throughout the Society Islands.

His son, Pomare 11, known for his intelligence and outgoing personality, became King in 1815.  He realized how important the influence of the missionaries and British commerce was to be for him.  He asked to be baptized in 1812, thus abandoning his traditional Gods.  Before his despotic reign began, a religious war had broken out, but it was terminated by the victory of the Christian converts in the battle of Fei pi in 1815.

This defeat marked the theoretical end of the traditionalists and of the ancient r6gime.  From now on, popaa and the Pomare family became dominant.  In this way, the Arii, sages and priests, were to disappear along with idols and primitive tools. 


Byron's voyage in the Dolphin and Tamar

In 1764, George III persuaded the Admiralty to send out a new expedition to explore for new lands in the Southern hemisphere. It was to be under the command of Commodore John Byron, one of the survivors of the Anson expedition. The two ships used were the experimental copper-bottomed Dolphin and the Tamar. They were fitted out under the pretence that they were to be sent to the East Indies. They left Britain on the 3rd July 1764, stopping at Madeira, Las Canarias, and Cabo Verde, before crossing the Atlantic to Brazil. Late 1764 and early 1765 were spent surveying Patagonia, where they reported meeting with giant locals, the Straits of Magellan and the Falkland Islands, where Warrahs, the Falklands 'wolf', attacked some of the sailors. Getting through the Straits of Magellan and into the Pacific took six frustrating weeks with the ships often being blown back where they came from.

By the time the ships came to what is now French Polynesia, the crew were suffering quite badly from the scurvy, and this had a major influence on the conduct of the voyage through the Pacific. They were desperate to restock with fresh supplies, in particular coconuts and fresh vegetables for the sick. However, the local inhabitants opposed any landings with shows of arms, and coupled with the difficulty of anchoring near to the coral atolls, prompted Byron to name them the Islands of Disappointment. The ships went on to Pukapuka in the Northern Cook Islands, which Byron called the Island of Danger. Then whilst searching in the supposed latitude of the Isles of Solomon, they came across the uninhabited atoll of Atafu in the Tokelau Islands. Despite the difficulties due to lack of safe moorings, boats were sent to the island to pick up supplies. These included 200 coconuts and quite a few seabirds that were so tame as to be easily caught by the sailors. They then went on to the Gilbert Islands and the Marianas, before heading back to Britain via the Philippines, Batavia, the Cape of Good Hope and St. Helena. The whole journey had taken about 22 months by the time they reached Britain on the 9th May 1766. At the time this was the fastest ever circumnavigation of the globe, but the discoveries in the Pacific were very limited and the Admiralty made rapid plans to send the Dolphin back to the Pacific. 

Wallis's voyage in the Dolphin & Carteret's in the Swallow

The second Dolphin expedition was under the command of Samuel Wallis, and was accompanied by Captain Carteret in the sloop Swallow, and the store-ship Prince Frederick. Carteret had sailed with the first expedition, starting out on the Tamar before being promoted to First Lieutenant on the Dolphin. The Swallow was in no fit state to undertake the journey in the first place, and was separated from the Dolphin whilst entering the Pacific. It was presumed by Wallis that the ship had been lost and was reported as such when they reached Britain in May 1768. Cook believed this to be the case when he left in the Endeavour on his first voyage. Against all the odds, the Swallow had actually survived and whilst limping back to Britain made some important discoveries including Pitcairn Island, and around the Solomon Islands and Northern Islands of modern Papua New Guinea. The Swallow eventually got back to England in March 1769.

Wallis discovered the island of Tahiti, which he named King George's Island, and also the islands to the west of Samoa that now bear his name. 

Thanks for the pointer, I first became of the board through a surf forum site where (apparently) the seller was looking for information to support his claim.
I checked the item out on the auction site, but unfortunately it seemed in excess that monthof my surfboard bugget for  (estimated US$600-80,000)