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beckwith : laieikawai, 1918 
M. W. Beckwith : Romance of Laieikawai, 1918.

Extracts from
Beckwith, Martha Warren (Translator): The Hawaiian Romance of Laieikawai.
Thirty Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Government Printing Office, Washington, 1918.
http://www.archive.org/stream/hawaiianromanceo00hale/hawaiianromanceo00hale_djvu.txt

Introduction.
Inrtroduction, translation and appendix by Martha Warren Beckwith. 
Page 32

In Kualii, the poet wishes to express the idea that all the sea belongs to the god Ku.
He therefore enumerates the different kinds of sea, with their locality - 
the sea for surf riding,
the sea for casting the net,
the sea for going naked,
the sea for swimming,
the sea for surf riding sideways,
the sea for tossing up mullet,
the sea for small crabs,
the sea of many harbors, etc.,

Page 343

The Jiuia is a specially high wave formed by the meeting of two crests, and is said to be characteristic of the surf at Kaipalaoa, Hawaii.

Page 355

Meanwhile Kaeha is carried away by spirits to Lewanuu and Lewalani where Kane and Kanaloa live, and Kauhi goes in search of him.
On the way he defeats and breaks into bits the opposing surfs and the dog Kuililoloa, hence surf and dogs remain small.

Page 340

The place of surf riding in Hawaiian song and story reflects its popularity as a .sport.
It inspires chants to charm the sea into good surfing - an end also attained by lashing the water with the convolvulus vine of the sea beach; forms the background for many an amorous or competitive adventure; and leaves a number of words in the language descriptive of the surfing technique or of the surf itself at particular localities famous for the sport, as, for example, the "Makaiwa crest" in Jloikeha's chant, or the " Huia " of this story.
Three kinds of surfing are indulged in riding the crest in a canoe, called pa lea toaa; standing or lying flat upon a board, which is cut long, rounded at the front end and square at the back, with slightly convex surfaces, and highly polished; and, most difficult feat of all, riding the wave without support, body submerged and head and shoulders erect.
The sport begins out where the high waves form.
The foundation of the wave, honva, the crest side, muku, and the rear, lala, are all distinguished.
The art of the surfer lies in catching the crest by active paddling and then allowing it to bear him in swift as a race horse to the hua, where the wave breaks near the beach.
All swimmers know that three or four high waves follow in succession.
As the first of these, called the kulaiia, is generally "a high crest which rolls in from end to end of the beach
and falls over bodily," the surfer seldom takes it, but waits for the ohu or opuu, which is " low, smooth and strong."
For other details, see the article by a Hawaiian from Kona, published in the Hawaiian Annual, 1896, page 106.

Page 362,
He then makes Kukuipahu king over Maui and goes on to Oahu, where Kakuhihewa hastens to make peace. One day when Makolea is out surf riding, ...

Page 363

... messengers of the king of Kauai, Kaikipaananea, steal her away and she becomes this king's wife. Kepakailiula follows her to Kauai and defeats the king in boxing.

Page 370

The chief of Puna seduces her, then, after a reconciliation, the Kohala chief, Kumoho, wins her affection. Halemano dies of grief, and his spirit appears to his sister as she is surfing in the Makaiwi surf at Wailua,Kauai. She restores him to life with a chant.

Page 376

Koolau, not knowing it is the girl's doing, re- ...

Page 375

... ports his friend to the king, and he and his wife decide that Pamano must die.
They entice him in from surf riding, get him dunk with awa in spite of his spirit sisters' warnings, and chop him to pieces.
The sisters restore him to life.


Beckwith, Martha Warren (Translator): The Hawaiian Romance of Laieikawai.
Thirty Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.
Government Printing Office, Washington, 1918.
http://www.archive.org/stream/hawaiianromanceo00hale/hawaiianromanceo00hale_djvu.txt 
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home catalogue history references appendix

Geoff Cater (2010) : M. W. Beckwith : Romance of Laieikawai, 1918.
http://www.surfresearch.com.au/1918_Beckwith_Laieikawai.html