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duke kahanamoku : january 1915 

Duke Paoa Kahanamoku in Australia.
Newspaper Extracts : January 1915.

See: Newspaper Menu : Introduction. 
The Sydney Morning Herald
Friday 1 January 1915, page 2.

ADMISSION 5/- (Reserved), 3/-, 2/- and 1/-.
Plan at Hotel Australia. 
1915 'Advertising.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 1 January, p. 2, viewed 3 January, 2015,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Friday 1 January 1915, page 2.

In addition to the i^nous drung competitions ar I ranged III connection with the Ivihaiiamoku carnhal' neu baturdaj at the Domain Baths the association ha? arranged for a special dupUy of high tower diiiiiB bj several leading exponents of the arl b. Riddington the State cbani) ion, will be asked to lead while he ,11111 lune the assistance <-f two re non ned i ¡sitora in tile person of J! I.ninth« tcham pion of N letona), and A Sauter (Ule if Ihe La 1 ibbcbul Club Paris) and a number of local c»pon enls Tile dninc; displai will thus take as bip tin intemational aspect na is the use with the swimming championships on this occasion

The vi'itors ha\e hi,| ample opportunity jf prac ti îng their art from the high tower at the Domain, as Ihrj baie been in Mdn«y now for onie dajs Thej thus will nofftel at a disadvantigc it» appear in<r from the local drung stipe, wliiih is higher

than anj olher in the world


His swimming An.01 latlon Ins decided that the eients will st irt to morrow at 2 10 p ni Ihe foi lou nie n, the ordei of programme -

I -tlents of AOids Junior Hnndiiap

-Heat of lOOjds Intercluí] Handicap

S-Hiçli an I low i-pnngboard dliing compell'lon I lOOids ihnni ionship of the countn r -Altmcil hfebuovs noielti Clent

fi- lOOjdh championship of New iiuth Wales "-Fnal of Wuls lunior Handicap

s-henil finnis of lOOid« Intcrcbib Handicap 0-Hieb tower dump; competition

jo-RPOjds hieran Memorial Scratch Race II - Noielti clent four oared rate

1 -1 Inil of lodi Is Interclub Handicap 73 H fib dil nie difcphi

l(_Tjid.¡ Intcrmtionil Tenu« Bein Race

lr -fluids chimpionnlup oí New south NNales

It ii ( limit I th I 111'' first appeirance of Kaba

naninkn in Ali«tnlia «111 occur at 1S p m in the Kidds ihimpomhip

1915 'SWIMMING.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 1 January, p. 4, viewed 3 January, 2015,
Evening News
Sydney, Friday 1 January 1915, page 2.

To-morrow will be a red letter day in connection with swimming in this state, as Duke Kananamoku and his swimming companion, George Cunha. will make their first puilic appearance In Australia at the Domain Pool at the first of the state championship carnival.
mplonsbap *;Arnlval6
The world's champion will oomlH-lc twice dur ing (he aii«rDoou. )u lie aim went, un lie programme ihe Hawaiian will njure id the lin ai ol tbe luu Jixilo champlonblilp ol New Souvn WaJos, »hw- ut wlU meet the most, rtrenuous oppcallron in ioc »orld to-oay In Oun&s Mi w«li) Barry. UiugftorLh. I'agc (S^.W.1. aud Stedman iVk'torlal. The Him ihrco have re

nealediy bcaieu Ujrryis Auslrallsoi reocJ-4 o[ M ?t &RAc lor luJ yards, in courur ol their training lorTo-morrov,i ocnl, .nil It la possible thlt the conlcsl will tn.' so tuvn Uat t&c oorU's b«i ogurcs— ol 3-oscc— wni.h tland lo Uw tre du of Kabanamoku, may be broken. AKbousn irouMcd oarl- in ibe wrek by an ear trouble, Duke hab thorojfihly rcco*rrcd, and Is anxloui to rcprodu. c his betl form Cun ha Is one ol the tjiecdirsl'roin in tio world to-day and one likely to Join with birry and Longwonb in Elvlns KahanamoLu lie ra.c -if bis lite over bn bibi distant. The vlEll has terved to make the two local champions sbow better torm loan ccr btlore. and Baririi private fbomngs have rajsfd ? hope in many that bo uill bcul bulb lb^ visl tors. Longworiu a)vk-a)s Rhowa hifi iwH Id competltlOD, bui hie lora during preparation bu been such as to anticipate somctblnj; bet ter tiian w^ bavr privioubly had from him. I41 bis second dpnearand1, Kabanamoku will bare thr- asilslan. i- r,f .'uiina in ±X -arda teams race, in whi. h . arh will :wlm 110 yurrtb ?In relays agBlubt ^^Jman and Ma^on iM**\ ?bourne I, and barry and Hay iSydneyi. It 1» practically rerlmn lliai the vjLlralasian record for l*)0 metreji — 61 i-Zhcc— ftill bo broken- The present Sgurei. are held t-y Usrry. vtbo hao done ihe distance In 6;i-ec in prlvair gnimp thin fca son, while Knhanamoku botdn the «orl4'i. re cord— C\ 3-.r. fc. onds— t'sublisbed at Haaiburi: in IM2. In b^ih ibrsp fitrlal TA'-fn th* Fpe - lators will be pro\l.led ^ilh FPC^dlrr awlrom^c than has evtr before brrn witnessed In Aun traUa. Lontnortb will Ve riven a hard takk In nrdrr to retain hi? championship illlc ovrr W' ynr-is. as the Manly swimmer. Adrian, ii- Bbnwlnc won derful form. On Ihe lart o.'.-a5l«n thr pair met only Indies cave tbe verdl-i i» l.onrrorrt SIdtf then Adrian baa Unprnvrfl ,insl1f rnbiv, and to hi« rr«ii- fun^ tlie fo.'eji. pw.|^i of -:u year over the half-mil'— llmlu 55fcr. T^- pi' However. In Wen- ol bis »'ll known .ib:li-;- ?- rise in the occasion, Lnntrvorih if E^ncr,illv regarded as the winner, but Ir.*- Ikfii« ik mrc lo b* closer than for many i^jfone pan . Nejit In Important1'- in the cbamplnntblrs romen the hlKh dlrlns dIFplays and rompe lltiona wherein sotn- fin- laknt will rartltl pste. Among the hept pKpnnenta of tbe art who bav*. accepted trtr lovlialioo to dive are S. Rlddlngton l?t»i» champion), M. GrlBlth ichamplon of Victoria), A Sauter (late of Lib bsbul Club, Paris), and many well-known local divers. Competitions off the hlrh and low springboards and from the hich lower have been arranged, while the dlrplay a III include flights from Ihe high tower. tnleretuti hsudleaps and Intr-reeflnf: novel ties make np one of the finest swimming treats yet submitted lo an Australian audience. Tbe Stats KWtafr Band will render atlectlou dur

ing the afternoon. Doors will opts at IJi ^R p m , and Us' proennme wlU eommeses ms*. ^B tually st 2 So p.m. H

1915 'SWIMMING.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 1 January, p. 2, viewed 3 January, 2015,

Saturday Referee and the Arrow
Sydney, Saturday 2 January 1915, page 5.


The president (Mr. C. D. Patterson) and officers of the Surf-bathing Association desire to express, through our columns, their appreciation of the work of club members during the past year, and hope that they will have a highly successful New Year, and personally wish them a Happy and Prosperous one.

Full advantage was taken of the beaches during the holidays, and the improved accommodation, particularly at Coogee, was much appreciated by the public, and as far as the writer's knowledge extends, no complaints were made.
The lookout kept by the various clubs,
on their particular beaches, was also the means of the festive period passing off without any accidents.
In several instances bathers were
carried out, but in every case speedily rescued by the members of the life-saving clubs.
At Cronulla, members of the local life-saving
club, who happened to be in the vicinity at the time of an alarm, rushed to render assistance without divesting themselves of their clothing.
Their promptitude and unselfishness
was heartily, commended by visitors' who witnessed the incident.

'What's the boat for,' queried the Duke, in
a surprised tone, when he espied the Manly L.S. Club's surf boat putting into Freshwater on Thursday last.
'We got them to bring it
round to pull your board out for you.' replied Don Mclntyre, beaming with pride and delight at the thought that his favorite haunt was to be the scene of the famous Kahanamoku's first exhibition in Australia.
The Hawaiian
greeted this information with a roar of laughter.
The reason for his irrepressible mirth was not
apparent at that particular moment to the officials surrounding him.
You see, they were
aware, and duly impressed, with the fact that the plank in question weighed something like 1001b.
Their action, of course, in arranging
to have the boat in attendance was dictated by overlooked that the Honolulu marvel is not a normal being, as far as his capabilities in the water arc concerned.
They were completely
enlightened as to this when they saw him take possession of what they fondly imagined would be an encumbrance in the breakers and make off with it seawards at such a rapid rate as to leave one of our crack swimmers far in the rear.
Then they realised where the joke came
appreciated it quite as much as the Duke himself.
Members of the Freshwater Club were fully

CHARLIE TOWNS, Holder of N.S. Wales Sculling Championship, a title he is to defend to-day.

fl. .*?:'. conscious of the honor conferred on their beach by its having been selected as the rendezvous for the distinguished visitor's initial display, and the committeemen saw to it that ample refreshments were provided.
Press folk and of
ficials privileged to view the exhibition.

The supplement to the Surf-Bathing Associa
tion's handbook is now ready, and will be in the hands of all clubs this week. Conditions laid down will govern all future examinations until further notice.
The examiner-in-chief, Mr. Roy Doyle, visited
Collaroy Beach last Sunday and instructed a squad of local club members, who intend presenting themselves for examination the second or third week this month.
They will pro
bably be the first candidates to be tested under the new rules.

The Rev. Mr. Purnell, of Gerringong. has
requested the Association to undertake the selection and forward him a complete life-saving outfit, that is to say, reel, line, and belt, as a first step towards the formation of a local club.
The hon. secretary is endeavoring to
let him have them before the New Year holiday.
Bondi Surf-Bathers' Club held a concert at the club-house on Christmas Eve.
About 70
incmb.-r:, and friends were present.
An ex
cellent musical programme was submitted, and altogether the function paused off most happily, lion, secretary W. S. Thomas supervised arrangements in his usual courteous manner, and was no small factor in the evening's success.
Mr. R. T. Cummins, one of ths club's
vice-presidents, presided, and Messrs. Middlton, King, Wright. Watson, and Guy Martin rendered contributions.
Several toasts were pro
posed, the most significant, perhaps, being one in which the well-being of members gone to the front was concerned.
The chairman, in
this connection, drew attention to the fact that out of slightly over 80 active club members, no fewer than 18 had offered their services to their country, and several of these had been entrusted with commissions, the club had every reason to be proud of the part it was taking in the present crisis.
On the I7th inst. a club rescue and resuscita
tion competition will be decided.
teams are now training hard for the event.
The conditions are to be si
milar to those governing the S.B.A. award.
The squads appear to be very evenly
matched, and it is anticpated the judges will find considerable difficulty in separating them when the time comes for them to give their decision.
Bondi surf-bathers have entered two teams
for the Pennant Championship.
Definite se
lections have not yet been made, but Captain Craven has the likely representative), in an advanced stage of preparation.
He states it will
not be for the want of work if the first Pennant Flag does not eventually fly over the local club-house.
It was noticed at the carnival held recently
at North Steyne, at which a number of teams competed for the first lime, colors worn in several instances were calculated to cause confusion to officials as well as spectators, owing to their close resemblance to those of old established clubs.
It is most desirable efforts
should be made to avoid this risk as much as possible.
It is the intention of the Associa
tion, I understand, to revise the colors of the various affiliated clubs, and in cases where they consider there is any likelihood of mistakes arising, to request the necessary alterations to be made as will obviate the danger. Cap colors will also be allotted in order to secure distinctivencss in the water.
Most of the clubs already
have these, but there are a few newly-formed bodies whose requirements in this respect have yet to be attended to.
The Lyttelton (N.Z.) branch of the Royal
Life-Saving Society has written to the Coogee Surf Club, advising that a Mr. J. A. Duffy, instructor of the Maranui Surf Club, was about to leave for Sydney, and is anxious to submit himself for the S.B.A. medallion. Coogee officials were requested to arrange so that he he given an opportunity of gratifying his wish This can be taken as an indication that knowledge of the good work being done by the State organisation is spreading, and that its matter where he may happen to be situated.
Coogee Club's active membership at the moment
is 102.
Life-saving instruction classes are being
held twice weekly, and officials report that members generally are attending to their patrol duties in a praiseworthy manner.
Two exami
nations are to be conducted during the season for S.B.A. and R.L. Society credentials.
team from the club was invited to visit Port


Macquarie shortly to give a demonstration in connection with the inauguration of a new local club, and the committee has given the. suggestion favorable consideration.
It is ex
pected that the club will be strongly represented on the occasion, as several prominent members have intimated their readiness to make the trip.
Surf matters have at last been satisfactorily
concluded at Wollongong.
At the instance of
the Mayor, a meeting was called of the late members of both clubs, and although there was a good attendance of the North Wollongong members, representatives of the other club were conspicuous by their absence.
It was unani
mously decided to form a club on purely life saving lines, and at the suggestion of the Mayor, who has worked earnestly and persistently in the direction of bringing about a settlement ever since negotiations with that object in view started, it was resolved to designate the new organisation the North Wollongong Surf Bathing and Life-Saving Club.
Mr. R.
Wotton was appointed hon. secretary.
new club entered two teams for the pennant championship, and will probably contest the first round on Anniversary Day.
The writer
wishes the North Wollongong a. and L.S, Club every success, and joins the president and officials of the controlling body in congratulating the Council on what has been accomplished.

1915 'THE SURF AND SURFERS.', Saturday Referee and the Arrow (Sydney, NSW : 1912 - 1916), 2 January, p. 3, viewed 3 January, 2015,

The Sun

3 January 1915, page 5.

Reading from the left:
W. Longworth, Duke Kahanamoku, 
I. Steedman, B. G. Page, A. W. Barry, G. Cuhna.

Sydney Morning Herald
4 January 1915, page 6.


6 January 1915, page 16.

53 4/5sec : Duke Kahanamoku Creates a New World's 100 Yards Record
Cunha and Barry also show Brillant Form : William Longworth unable to Swim in the Mile : Record Crowd, and Gate over £600 : By CECIL HEALY

One hundred yards in 53 4-5 seconds!
And over a straight-away course too!
"What do you think of the Duke?" one swimmer has impetuously questioned of another, as if eager to anticipate the query he knew instinctively was on the tip of his fellow enthusiast's tongue, when meeting for the first time since the decision of the 100yds State championshiop on Saturday afternoon.

Invariably the person addressed has paused momentarialy before replying, in order to search his mind for some superlative calulated to do justice to his feelings of wonder and admiration aroused by the performance of the Hawaiian.

"But it is beyond comprehension!"
Well might such an ejaculation be excused, nay, even expected, of those who were not actual eyewitnesses of the feat.
However, when one comes to think of it, followers of natation should be getting use to having their established theories as to the limitations of human cabalities in the element, exploded in startling fashion.
A little more than a decade ago the topical conjecture was as to whether the distance would ever be negotiated in a minute.
When Fred Lane, as it were, answered that surmise in the affirmative, he was popularly supposed to have set a standard for all time.
Then Dick Cavill, employing the "crawl" stroke for the first time in competition, advanced the indicator on the speedometer by jumps and starts. The movements successfully shocked the natatorial world.
It was just recovering its equilibrium when the American C. M. Daniels emerged from obscurity.
He thereupon commenced what culminated in a long series of disturbances amongst records it was hitherto believed were destined to be mumified.
In the process the swimming community was once more subject to agitation. On his becoming a benedict and his virtual retirement foreshadowed, it was considered that that eventuality would signalise a many years' cessation of hostilities as far as the world's best sprint swim figures were concerned.

The Duke is Discovered
Perhaps it would have been so, had not Mr R. T. Rawlins migrated from the United States to Honolulu, and had he not been cutely observent, after the manner of his countrymen.
Many people had watched and applauded the exceptional skill displayed by the Duke when indulging in the old Hawaiian pastime of surf board riding.
No doubt thousands had seen him "crawl" after his board as he played about with it, kitten like, in the transparent waters that wash the tropical isle.
They probably remarked that he was very much at home in the element, but beyond that did not detect anything unusual about him.
It did not occur to them that there was anything extrodinary in the way he glided backwards and forwards.
That discovery was reserved for Mr. Rawlins.
His divination was more than confirmed by results of tests he submitted the Duke to over properly measured courses.
These trials were then forwarded on to the late Mr. Sullivan for recognition, but that great official was just as incredulous about their authenticity as the world at large, his scepticism drawing forth the now famous comment that "world's records are broken by fractions, not seconds."

As the Duke's romantic story has never ben related in this column, I might go on to mention that subsequently arrangements were made for him to be tried out in the United States.
He made his debut in a race held in a freshwater tank.
Naturally, everyone connected with the sport was tremendously curious to see if he could make good the amazing rumours that had preceded him.
The Duke had no previous experience in the lighter water.
This resulted in his swallowing a mouthful soon after the contest started.
It nearly chocked him, and the Duke had no alternative but to quit.
This happening caused convulsive laughter in swimming circles.
The American sportsmen fondly imagined a joke had been put up on them, but the mirth was none the less hearty on that account.
Their awakening, however, was as sudden as it was effective.
The Duke had another oppurtunity of showing prowess very soon after, when he promptly, in Yankee parlance, cleaned all the local champions up.

Kahanamoku leads from G. Cuhna (2), A. Barry (3), W. Longworth (4),
B. G. Page (5), and K. Steedman (6).
At the Stockholm Olympic Contests
Then, next, we find hem setting the seal to his reputation in the historical Stockholm Olympic contests, at the onclusion of which

The Sun
8th January 1915, page 6. (1.)

( BY W. F. CORBETT.) (2.)

Kahanamoku talked very interestingly to me yesterday about shooting the surf with and without the board. (3.)
"Surf shooting is a new pastime here," said he.
"With us it is old - as old as the hills, perhaps. (4.)
Shooting on a board and in a canoe must have started further back than body shooting. (5.)
There are surf boards in the Honolulu Museum which saw service ever so many years  ago, but they wouldn't do today. (6.)
We have, as you wrote in the Sun a week or two back, improved our boards a bit, though they may look crude enough. (7.)
The length, the width, and the balance caused by nicely-judged distribution of weight, are the results of the study of cause and effect as well as experience." (8.)

Surf shooting is indeed new in Australia.
We do not need to go to the oldest inhabitant for information regarding how or when it began.
Men who could supply all the particlars are yet young.
Somewhere about twenty-two years since (9.), as the result of a long and vigorous fight for the privilege by several residents of Manly, peole who desired to do so were allowed to bathe in the surf at any time and all times throughout the day, and their number multiplied remarkably from year to year. (10.)

We had surf shooting four or five years before surf bathing became general. (11.)
Mr Fred C. Williams, that inimitable handler of the megaphone at all Sydney's important swiming carnivals, was the pioneer.
He picked up the art from a South Sea Islander, and spread knowldge of it amoung the surfers on the favored beaches of the time - Freshwater, Curl Curl and Maroubra. (12.)
Mr. Williams was then the best exponent of cavorting the breakers, and he still stands out in that respect  beyond all others.

This enthusiast will tell you of surf shooters of the early days of the game who suprised their fellows  by the clever manner in which they used the force of the breaker.
I have heard of him mention Monty Fuller, Douglas Walker, Frank Bell, Harald Baker (the Stadium referee), Jack Thompson, Morman Martin (Maroubra), Arthur Rosenthal, Clive Smith, and Co., as wonderfully adept at taking the wave and never leaving it till it exhausted itself.

Proceeding, Kahanamoku said : "You have hundreds more surf shooters at work in one day around Sydney than we see in a week, or perhaps a much longer stretch of time, at Honolulu, but I think the old island has the pastime at greater perfection, which is only to be expected considering its antiquity with us. (13.)
We race each other in on a breaker, and the desire to excel sets us all thinking hard and practising constantly.

"You catch the wave as it curls. We take it earlier, perhaps half a dozen yards away from the point of turning, and accumulate speed by scooping the water with the right hand and using the left in the ordinary way, putting in the while at least the speed you saw me finish my world record in last saturday afternoon.
Then the velocity of the shoot is materially increased and its duration rendered greater.
We begin on our sides and find we get more control over the effort, then we turn on our backs or breasts as fancy suggests.
You are apparently content with one position.
Two or more of your beaches I have seen where dozens of bathers were shooting or trying to shoot are not suitable.
The best performers amoung the people patronising those places would do a great deal better if assisted by more favorable conditions. (14.)
Holes and channels created by the water's action are against the best results in surf shooting.
We believe there is not another place in the world equal of Waikiki  - that little cove  lying in the shelter of Diamond Head - for surf shooting purposes, and thousands of travellers who call at picturesque island every year endorse that opinion.
It has  a big curve protected by a large coral reef about half a mile from the shore.
There is absolutely no undertow. (15.)

"There the facscinating sports of surf-canoeing and surf-board riding are indulged in by man, woman, and child, who insist that they have the most exhiarating and fascinating pastime known.
The canoe is cunningly turned  before a breaker near the edge of the reef till it is picked up like a feather on the inclined plane of the front of the  wave, and borne with remarkable  speed - frequently  right to shore.
The  board is worked on the same principle, but its control  calls for  much greater skill.

"There are numbers of high class surf-shooters in Honolulu, and some white people amoung them, but, as with every other game, a few can do better than the great majority.
It was with the few I delighted to be. (16.)
You ask me if I held the championship as a surf shooter!
I did not, because we had no competitions, but I do not mind telling you that there were none around Honolulu whom I knew anything about able to shape better than me (17.), and the full-blooded Hawaiian population is something between 25,000 and 30,000.

"You must get suitable  days here to achieve the best results, and we, at Honolulu, also need suitable days, but more of them occur at Waikiki Beach than on this country's ocean front. (18.)

"Take Freshwater, for instance.
I was promised a long roll there the day I gave that exhibition on the board, and perhaps such a state of affairs may be more often experienced at Freshwater than at Manly, Coogee or Bondi, but I found a short roll and a sea otherwise which needed some managing. (20.)
With everything favorable one can show one's best , and the more frequently condiions are right  the more practice the shooter gets.

"Your  surfers do wonderfully well, all things considered.
But  not  every man  can become an expert.
All people are not built the right way.
The greater the bouyancy the easier the task.
There are men who can never float properly.
Their legs will insist on dropping down."

Questioned regarding his ear trouble, and asked if it was prevalent amoung Honolulu's surf shooters, Kahanamoku said he never heard of many people suffering.
Occassionally there were cases more serious than others, but considering the number of people who entered the surf, the percentage was very small.
Three or four toimes he had to seek medical attention to relieve him of pain, and found filling his ears with rubber plugs, which are procurable in Sydney, or using wadding saturated with oil, every time he swam till a cure was effected, helped him a great deal.
Before starting for the 100 yards championship of New South Wales last Sunday afternoon     Kahanamoku  could only plug one ear.
It would not have paid to be deaf  to the starter's signals.

1. A first hand interview with Duke Kahanamoku on 7th January 1915.
Recorded several weeks after the first Freshwater exhibition, other demonstrations were to follow in the next week.
Although much of the text is given as direct quotations, there is a possibity that some of the language has been modified by the reporter.

2. The reporter, W. F. Corbett joined The Referee, (a Sydney sporting paper) in 1888, where he reported boxing, swimming, lawn bowls and both codes of rugby.
He moved to the Sydney Sun in 1913. (Source -Rabbitoh Warren)
After a journalistic career of 37 years, he died in 1923, aged 67.
(Source -the Bulletin, Sydney, 1 November, 1923)

3. Sydney's surfing enthusiasts were as interested in Duke Kahanamoku's body surfing skills, as well as his ability on a suirfboard..

4. The ancient origins of surf riding are noted.

5. I suggest this contention is open to further discussion.

6. The boards reported as held by the Bishop Museum probably refers to those ridden at Wakiki in the 1830's by high chief Abner Paki and eventually restored by Tom Blake in the late 1920's.
See #502

7. Duke Kahanamoku was aware of his own press coverage.

8.  That surfboard design has a history (experience) and is also in continuous development (study of cause and effect).

9. circa 1893

10. Legalised daylight bathing is credited to Manly residents and there is no mention of the often credited William Goucher.

11. Hard core suring enthusiasts preceeded the growth of popular surf bathing.

12. Circa 1895, South Sea Islander, Tommy Tana, a youth employed as a houseboy in the Manly district, introduced body surfing to Australia.
From the Pacific island of Tana, (New Hebrides, now Vanuatu) he amazed onlookers at Manly Beach with his skill at using the power of a wave to ride back to the beach.
His style was studied and copied by Manly swimmers, notably Eric Moore, Arthur Lowe and Freddie Williams, considered the first local to master the sport.
Enthusiasm for surf riding expanded such that Manly surfers were invited to demonstrate the technique at other metropolitan beaches, ultimately including Newcastle and Wollongong.

13. Notes the immense popularity of surf riding in Australia at this time.

14. The importance of suitable surf conditons, futher expanded upon later in the interview.

15. The suitability of Wakikiki for surf riding - given the frequency, number of breaks, favorable wind direction and tropical air and water temperatures - is unique.

16. While aware of his own abilities, Duke Kahanamoku indicates that his skills are not unique, and are attainable by others.

17. Can only refer to surfboard shaping?
If so, it would firmly cement Duke Kahanamoku's postion as the founder of modern surfboard design.
It would also account for the importance and revence accorded to Duke's designs and construction technics by Australian surfers.

18. Given the restricted geographic mobility of the period.

19. Further comments on the importance of suitable surf conditons,  expanded intial observations, see 14.

20. Probably refers to a uneven swell or even choppy surface conditions, as indicated by photograph by the Daily Telegraph, 25th December, 1914.
Image below.

21. Ear problems are a common complaint for surfers, exotosis is commonly called "Surfer's Ear".
The use of ear plugs is the most practical preventative.
20. There is no discussion of wave height.or mention of tandem riding.

Evening News
Sydney, Saturday 9 January 1915, page 7.

Tbe third and concluding meeting o[ the N.S.W. Swimming Association carnival was held at the Domain Bstbs this afternoon under weather conditions not altogether favorable from the public point of rleir.
showers undoubtedly prevented large numbers attending, but taking everything into consideration, the crowd was satisfactory, and a highly attractive programme was provided.
Interest in the Interclub events was well
maintained, and colors were prominent all round the basin.
Tbe star event, of course,
was the 220 yards championship in which Duke Kahanamoku and Cunha were pitied againstl the local cracks, and in this respect it is worth noting that the tide was on the ebb, thus the competitors had it with them one way and against them the other.
The ci.aoip.orf hip ivent waa preceded by an
excellent dltlOa.r u! musical llfenuore.
This Is
tbe nautrr* equivalent ot tbe old-fashioned parlor gd;ne o: musical chairs.
Tbe competi
tors make loir ot tun In tbelr allempu to se cure a b'u y and plaoc It over their bead In the water, when the band clops suddenly. An ot-cr-ze«jous participant sometimes grabs toe luoy too soon, and pays tbe penally by being 'ouled.'
This afternoon's performance evoked
ruars of laughter, as aevcral times two bead! bobbed up, encln-led by one ouoy.
Tbe Held
K-is amrrowed down to two, and tbe band play fd half a bar of 'It's a long way to Tipper ary,' and c.
Longworlh won prettily.

There waa no record-breaking this afternoon
by Duke Kahanamohu, who Mid lh.' olber day to a friend, 'You can't smash records every time you go into the water.'
And the championshi
p this afternoon, while won by tbe Hawaiian marvel, was ??iim m Smln 9: :-Ssec, olilib. against the late II. B. Klcran'e record of 2mln 28 £-Ssec, is four fleraads short.
The race was also robbed of some of Us In

leribt )» the absence nf tbe bolder ot the title, W Longwortb. Howcur, the contest was ei ^llfng onouRh, breause of tlie great go between r»Be. of Kandwlck and roon,,.. and Cunha. ot llxall. the Sydney man gut the secODd honors by about a toucb, amid a Florin ot applause.
The positions, as drawn Vy th-- men, ffavo
Duke a place between rimlm anil Hosrdman, «nd ulirn Scarier A. C. W Hill tailed 'Uo,' Ilie field mruck the water I'r.-Uj ovll together, liuke took the lead after the Urn Mini- MroLes. lie went away with I'hara. lerlttl. . .isr. nod lie tore three-parta ot the balbs lenrlh had been covered. »o« fully a length ahru.i. In to thla stage. Doardman, Tbomas. rag'-, mid Ouoba were practically together. Tbe next Hem ot Interest wait to *at'b Duke turn. In thin, he executed a -??. ::ul move ment, and was leading for hatui- ..l::i-it,l before Ihc crowd realised that he luil tlIi ? Die turn.

LUODa was i-iu,iny prcttr, uut .1' i.'^c grounu ? few strokes later, sMuimlni. a uJ .nurse, and crossed Tnomna. Meantlne. tlie , ro»d was calling lor IU,arJm»n. He respou \i -.1. rerUln ly, but It wns sn effort nailed, so to speak, as Duke was thin fully three yards ahead of the lot. Cunhn's had stirring ulrrriej attention to Thomas and Vw. .tnil lu--, the rrowd was Mre to thr tan 1h.11 runhn's -lianie for sec ond place waB dUanponrlnK. Pnge challenged dong battle oil the way In the finlFh. The crowd urged Page on vicroUBly. and bad the satisfaction of ceclnR him rench the board ahead of Cunha by a touch. Duke, however, bad got Ihcie In comparative comfort, fully 3yd In the lead. Ne»t entne the the result as follows: -nuhc in :min 3: 2-Esec: Page, second, In ?mln 34Eee.'' Thi- AUEtrallm record ot imln !8 I-5see i»«s established by 'be late D. B. Kleran In 19^'. tie Enellsi report of !mll- 2S 1-Can- by Daniels In 1909, and tre Amerlrnn world's record of 2mln IS 2-E-ec was established by Daniels on Mnrcb 25, 1909. Duke recr-lv'l 4 great round of applnuno for his arln thlt tfternoon. even I hough li' had failed, to smash any of tbe standing times. The results were.:— 7B YARDS JUNIOR INTEHCLUD HANDICAP (limited to boys under l«l — FlrFt he.n: A. Joyce -E. Sydney), Tsec. I; n. Eve (Moftmao), 4. 2. Time, G6ser. Second heal: II. Klrk'lsnd (Manly), 7sec, I; n. Abbotomey (Rose Boy),-, 2. Time, 51 S-6sec. Third heal: R. Woller (Fydneyl. 3ser. V; S. Wllshcr (Bnlcicln). «. :. Time, WM;ser. Fourth heat: ^*'. Morris (SydnryJ, fisf. I; w. Herald (Manly). 6, :. Time, 61 :-5sr, . Final: Klrkland. 1: MorMi, I; Herald, 3. Time, CoUsec. 100 YARDS INTRRCLfB 'IANDICAP— First heat: H. Mosson isouth Sydteyl, lSsi'C 1. A. Datchelor (Eaat Sydney), 11, 2. Time, lmin 19s»e. fSecond beat: C. Ostley iMosman), lUec. 1; W. Paton -Rote Dayl. 13. :!. lime, lmin C t-Csec. Third heat: I'. Conlon H'yr mont), lGsec, I: A. J. Foot (Y.MC.A.l. 8. I. Time. latJo 12 iSrrc. Founli b?al: J. I-xtcr (Randwlck and CooEeel, 4e,t. 1: E. Doran (Woolwich). 18. :. Time, lmin 12 VSecct Fifth heat: A. Oatley (Mosmsnl. user, 1; TV. Jolly iSydncy) IS. 2. Time, lmin 10 3-is.i-. Sixth heat: W. Bhcrwood (Rose' Bas). Ssec, I: G. Gunther 'Sydney), 15. 2. Time, lniln 5 :-5Bee. Seventh heat: 11. Helllnes (Sydney), llsec. l; J. Kelly (Drummoyne), 1!, !. Time, lmin isee. Klrhth heat: R. CulhberUon (Manly), 15sec. 1; ri Lucas (Dondl) 10 :. 1'lme, ltnln 11 2-Escc Ninth hut: H. t)ouel»» -Syiney), Sser. lj C. Lemaln (Y.M.C.A.), 9. :. Time. In-.ln Tsec. Tentli heat; E. Cornish lY.M.C.A.), llsec, 1; N'. Lone wort b -Ro»e Bay), It. !. Time. )a)n 9 1-Bsec. Eleventh beat: T. Flttgerald (Orum rooyne), 14sec. 1; A. Mnrtln (Drummoyue), 13, :. Time, lmin II 8-Eser Semi-finals. — First heat: G. Oatley, 1; P. Conlon, 2: A. Oalley. 3. Time. Imln ' JSsec. Second heat: R. Mclllnrs, i; K. Cornish, 2: R. Cuthberuon, 3. Time, lmin 5 2-Sser. Final: O. Oatley, 1; It. CuinterUDn. :; P. Conlon, i. Time, lmin C 4-Eaer. 220 YARDS OHAMPlONfllll' OF SEW SOLTH WALES. Duke Paoa Kahlniimoku (Hawaii) ? 1 B. a. Page (lundalrk and Conger) ? 2 G. cunha (Hawaii) ? 3 C. Thotnai (Sydney) ? « L. Boardmah (Sydney) ? E Time, Jmlb It t-Ssec. PaRfs time, !mln lime. MUSICAL LIFEBUOYS— C. Loninrorth (Rose Ray). JUNIOR D1V1NC COMPETITION.— R. Eve IMosman), I: A. Eve fMotmon), 2. OIL DRUM RACE - Drown (Dalmoln). 100 YARDS JUNIOR CHAMPIONSHIP (limited to boys under 18).— D. Campbell (Drummoyne), I: N Smith (lUaly), J; }. Brown (Mujily), 3. Time, lmin 4 4-Csec. Won by a yard. DIVING CHAMPIONSHIP OF NEW BOOTH WALB8. n. Provan (Sydney) ? 1 H. Wano (Mosman) ? 2 5. niddlngton (Manly) ? 3 GOO TARDS TEAMS' CHAMPIONSHIP OF MEW SOUTH WALEB, SYDNEY A TEAM (Beck Hardwlck, Thomaa, Boardmu, Barry) ? I MANLY (Wild, Bole, Solomon. Adrian, Bay) - Time, Cmln 1 1-tiec. Manly'a time wai train t 4-C-ec. Tho other competitors wire Sydney B. tat Ensl Sydney.

1915 'CHAMPION SWIMMERS.', Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), 9 January, p. 7, viewed 6 January, 2015,

The Sun
11th January 1915, page 6.


Kahanamoku, the Hawaiian swimmer visited Freshwater yesterday morning, where he gave some fine displays of surf-shooting.
In the afternoon be treated the thousands of spectators on the South Steyne Beach to a highly interesting and clever exhibition of board and ordinary surf-shooting.
The breakers were favorable for the pastime, and the Honolulu champion made some magnificent returns to the shore standing on his big surfboard.
He was however, greatly impeded on this occasion by local surfers, who wished to give exhibitions of their own at the same time.
Nevertheless, his performance was a revelation to the big crowd in the vicinity.
Sunday Times
Sydney, Sunday 10 January 1915, page 2.
Duke Paoa Kahanamoku can do two things.
He can swim and sing.
He swam yesteraay afternoon, and he sang last night at the reception tender for him by the Swimming Association.
There may be doubts about his swimming being orthodox, but there are none about his singing; nevertheless he received a ucaten inu roar ot appltuse, because it was his way at responding to the toast ot his health. 'bing, Duitc, sing 1' roareti tne gat,jKring v/hen the ausky Hawaiian rose 'to respond, aomc body pushed a \veird-loo/.ing native instrument into tne Duke'a hand, and tne next moment ths swimming giant burst into song to the accom paniment ot the wierd-est- strains one ever lis tened to. It was something between the high pitched notes ot a moiiqu'lo and the angry hum of a swarm of bees on the wing, but it earned a wonderful reception. Give us more !' yelled thf jatheving. This time the Duke came down to civilisation and sang 'By the Sea,' and n tew venturesome sports, helped him along.. 1'ina.^y the Du;e thanked his entertainers and s .t dowi. Then it was Ge6rge CunhaV turn. ? He

greeted the eathering i 1 .Hawaiian, but cries of 'No sa/ree r rang- oi; -.'. Then he ? murmured suinc 11. 3re Hawaiian and. brought down the house by asking :.'D_- you. get me?' Nobody uidn't, and he, too, resumed his seat.

1915 'KAHANAMOKU, SONGSTER.', Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), 10 January, p. 2, viewed 6 January, 2015,
Sydney Morning Herald
Monday 11 January 1915 page 6.
Corrections required!!!


The party of Hawaiian swimmers comprising Messrs. D. P. Kahanamoku, G. Cunha, and Francis Evans (manager), were entertained at dinner at the Fresh Food and Ice Company' cafe, King-street, on Saturday evening.
There was a representative attendance of over 10 swimmers, and the dinner was presided over by Mr. James Taylor, president of the association.
After the toasts of  "The King" and the "President of the United States" had been honoured, Mr. Taylor proposed tho toast of "Our Visitors," remarking that the visit of the Hawaiians was of historical interest, in as much as it was the first occasion on which amateur swimmers of international reputation had visited Australia.
And what champions they were.
Kahanamoku's speed over the sprint distance was an eye-opener to those who had not seen him swim previously.
Mr. Taylor paid a tribute to the efforts of Messrs Rawlins (Hawaii) and W. W. Hill, hon. secretary of the Australian Swimming Association, in bringing about the visit of the Hawaiians and thus helping to promote tho most successful swimming event ever held in Sydney; or, for that matter, in Australia. Mr. Taylor also eulogised the true sporting spirit displayed by the visitors, and concluded by stating that Australian swimmers would undoubtedly benefit by watching Kahanamoku's method of propulsion.

Mr. Evans, in responding, said he fully appreciated the honour conferred on his party by the New South Wales Swimming Association, and hoped that they would always deserve the good things that had been said of them.

Mr. Kahnnamoku, instead of replying, sang a Hawaiian Hula, "Meliana e," (?) in conjunction with Messrs. Evans and Cunha, the sprint champion manipulating the Ukulele, a local stringed musical instrument.
"By the Sea" was rendered as an encore.
However, those present insisted on Kahanamoku giving a speech, which he did as follows:- "Gentlemen, I thank you for your little (??) - I don't know what you call it, but it's all right."
(Great laughter.)
Mr. Cunha also replied.
The other toasts honoured were:-"Winners and Losers," "The Coldale (?)," "The Press" and "The Chairman."

The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 11 January, p. 6, viewed 6 January, 2015,

The Sun
12th January 1915, page 7.


Kahanamoku was in the surf at Manly alI day Sunday.
He gave himself wholly to that popular ocean-side suburb, and enjoyed every moment of the time every bit as much as many thousands of spectators enjoyed his exhibition.
The Hawaiian spent the morning at Freshwater, where he had a favorable easterly roll, and what he did there in the way of board and surf shooting surprised every spectator.
He, as he put it himself. "got it right" several times, and consequently was, on each occasion, seen at his best.
Messrs. Fred Williams, our champion surf shooter, and H. M. Hay, the speedy Manly swimmer, who "did fifty-nine" in his heat of the inter-club handicap on the first day of the recent carnival, were invited by Kahanamoku to "get aboard" with him, and they speak of the experience as thrilling.
"Now stand up!' ordered the controller of the frail craft when the proper moment arrived, and
then - "well we've already ordered a board each," said the pair of enthusiasts yesterday, while talking of what occurred, "and we are going to master that game beyond any other."
Kahanamoku is not anxious to keep his secret to himself.
He went to considerable trouble explaining the how and why of his pet pastime, and it will not be his fault if we do not have Fred Williams instructlng all desirous of learning the mysteries of this new to us surf play, as he taught so many the art of body shooting.
The change in the afternoon to go to South Steyne did not suit board-work so well, and the performer was consequently not seen to the same advantage  as in the morning, still he gave an exhibition which a.pparently delighted the great crowd looking on.

A change was made in the Australian itinerary arranged for Kahanamoku who is now well on his way to delight Queen8land folk.
He left by the Brisbane express yes-terday afternoon to fufill eight engagements, which include shows at Allora and Rockhampton.

Due to reach Sydney again on the 4th proximo, Kahanamoku will appear at the Dee Why Surt Club's carnival on the 6th prox., the Cronulla carnival on the 7th, Drummoyne Baths on the 8th, and Newcastle on the 10th.
The 11th will see him hurried off to Melbourne for exhibitions on the 15th and 18th of February, and coming back to Sydney he will step off the train at Goulburn, where preparations are being made for a good time.
Just exactly when we may see the last ot the "Duke" is not, at the moment, certain.
If the original plan were adhered to he would leave for New Zealand about the middle ot February, but the swimming authorities of that part ot the continent are apparently not ready to receive him.
They have cabled the local governing body to delay his visit a few days it possible.

The N.S.W.A.S.A. is now hopetul that their guest's services may be available tor a big patriotic carnival to be held in the Municipal Baths, Domain, on the 20th proximo, when the great attraction will probably be a meeting between Kahanamoku and Billy Longworth, who was prevented, through illness, from competing at the recent State championshlp meeting after the first day.

A correspondent -Bona-fide Amateur- writes asking information regardlng the conditions under which Kahanamoku is here, and expressed the opinlon that "The border- line of amateurism must be dangerously threatened by the liberty of the expenses allowed him."
Bona-fide Amateur did not believe a man like Kahanamoku wouJd come so far a way from his home unless he was liberally remunerated.
I made Inquiries of Mr. Scott, hon. secretary. and others connnected with the management of the Swimming Assoclation and learned that neither Kahanamoku nor anyone of the two visitors accompanying him received a penny.
They were guaranteed first-class travelling to and hotel expenses from Honolulu to Honolulu, and promised a tour through Australia in so far as it could be arranged.
The A.A.U. of the United States vouched for Kahanamoku's status, and cabled the Sydney controllers of his trip for an undertaking that he would not be allowed to compete with professionals. That was given.
During the Queensland, Melbourne and New Zealand visits the New South Wales Association is to receive £25 for each show taklng place.
It is expected that the venture will result in a substantlal addition to this States  swimming exchequer, but it may not prove the very profttable thing some people appear to imagine.
Over and above the expenses of the visitors there is the cost of advertising, the renting of the Municipal Baths, &c.
It 1s much the greatest risk the association has ever shouldered.

Probably Kahamoku's trip to Australia is a matter such as the English Amateur Swimming Asociation would have refused to countenance had that body been in a position of power regarding it.
It will be remembered by the older swimming officials of to-day that whenever the motherland was approached with the idea of securing a visit by an English champion to Australia we would be told, a.ter a lot of formality had been gone through, and the Invitation passed from the Southern Counties' Association to the Association proper, or from the latter to the former and back again, that the
suggestion, because of the expense necessitated, savored too much. of professionalism.
And all the tIme we were sending our top-notches to the old country and they were drawing blg gates to swell the coffers of England's clubs and her governing body.
I remember one London writer working hlmself up to an hystertcal condltion almost when he heard that Son (we used to call him then) Baker had gone all the way to New Zealand, and no sooner returned to Sydney than he wheeled round and hurried oft to Rockhampton.
"Sureley", said the English scribe, "there Is somethlng here that should receive attention.
Baker may have pald his own expenses and he may have only received within a penny of the amount needed to land him at his destination, but what was the object of It all?
Nothing more or less than to provide a big line for the invitlng club's bill."
That writer did not know, or could not see, that Baker's tour was in furtherance of a scheme which all Australian swimming associations had at heart for the purpose of popularising the game and spreading it.

The motherland should have seen to the beam in her own, than troubling about the mote in Australia's eye.
Nuttall, in his amateur days, also Tyers and Jarvis, were up to their eyes In engagements of the nature indicated, but never a hand did the ruling bodt lift to stop it, desplte the fact of most people being aware that at least two of the trio had no money for such trips, and valiable trophies, in the form of high priced pianos and the like were proudly pointed to as evidences of their owner's superiority.

As evidence of how poor a swimmwer, comparatively, Kahanamoku is beyond 110 yards, at which he holds the world record, the following reference may be interesting.
One of the official time-keepers, Mr. T. C. Roberts, specially clocked the Hawiian's first half of the 220 yards swim last Saturday afternoon as 1 min. 8 2-5 sec, which is not at all fast.
The second lap occupied the difference betwen that and 2 min. 32 2-5 sec.
It seems hardly possible for a first clas swimmer's power to peter out to such an extent, but it did.

The Referee
13 January 1915, page 15.
A Few Remarks on Swimming.
The Cynic
The visitors were not such accomplished speakers as swimmers, though it is possible that Messrs. Kahanamoku and Cunha are gifted enough when they speak in the native tongue, for no one present was able to interpret the compliments they gave voice to with wreaths of smiles.
The Duke and his comrades introduced a novelty by substituting for the speech a song, with the Duke playing the accompaniment on his mandolin.
Though all present did not hear this clearly, it was a remarkably popular innovation and led to an encore.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Thursday 14 January 1915, page 10.


ALLORA (Q.), Wednesday.
Tho Allora Swimming Club held a carnival to-day, at which George Cunha and Duke Paoa Kahanamoku took part.
Cunha won the 100 yards handicap from scratch in 50 1/2s.
Kahanamoku won the 400 yards from scratch in 5m 31s.

The Brisbane Courier (Queensland)
Tuesday 19 January 1915 page 3.


The members of the Hawaiian swimming team were entertained at a delightful trip up the river on Sunday afternoon by the Commercial Amateur Swimming Club, in the motor launch Darryl.
About 70 participated in the outing.
Amongst the invited guests were Messrs. Duke Kahanamoku, Francis Evans, D. S. Carter, president Q.A.S.A., A J. Wilkins, treasurer Q.A.S.A , and the following vice presidents of the club:- Dr. Shaw, Messrs. J. Casey, F. Hepburn, C. W. R.  Just, M. J. Kirwan, M.L.A., B. H. Hart, and S Davison (lhandicapper).
Amongst others were Messrs. Parkes and Fitzgerald, Warwick, several members of the Commercial Club, and members of the Toowong, Vallev, and South Brisbane clubs.
On reaching the destination a large number enjoyed a delightful swim, which was enlivened by the use of a polo ball.
The remainderenjoyed themselves with a football on the flat.
The "Duke" preferred the latter pastime, at which he is no mean adept: .
A shower of rain caused a leturn to the boat, vvhere refreshments were served by E. C. Eachenhagen.
Before leaving a few toasts were proposed.
"The Visitors" was given by M. J. Kirwan. M L.A. (vice president), and responded to by Messrs. F. Evans and Duke Kahanamoku.
 "The Q.A.S.A." was proposed by Dr Shaw (vice president), and appropriately responded to by Mr D. S. Carter (president Q.A.S.A)
Mr. Carter proposed the toast of "The Commerial  Swimming Club," wihich was responded to by Mr. J. Dunning (hon. secretary).
A start was made for town shortly after 6.
The trip was enlivened by Mr. A. Bragg's musical ubllltiea (?) and vocal items from several members.

The Brisbane Courier
Thursday 21 January 1915, page 3.


WARWICK, January 20.
The Warwick Amateur Swimming Club, which had invited Duke Kahanamoku, the famous Hawaiian swimmer, and George Cunha, to give an exhibition at Warwick on thair return from Brisbane, has been advised that they will proceed to Sydney by steamer.
Duke Kahanamoku states that he expects to make another tour of Australia next year, and that he will then visit Warwick.

The Sydney Morning Herald
Saturday 23 January 1915 page 13.


The following fixtures have been arranged for Kahanamoku mokti and party on their return from Brisbane: Arrive Sydney, February 4 Surf display at Deewhy Club's Carnival on ... Cronulla Surf Club on February and Drummoyne Club's Carnival on 6th; Newcastle club's Gala, l0th; visit ... 154 words

The Brisbane Courier (Queensland)
Monday 25 January 1915, page 3.


Fortune was doubly unkind to the Queensland Amateur Swimming Association in respect to the third and final stage of the Kahanamoku Carnivals, which were held on Saturday afternoon.
Firstly, it was ascertained during the week that the Dock, where the first two stages were held with success, would not be available, so recourse had to be made to the South Brisbane Baths, with its shorter course and lessor accomodation for spectators.
The second misfortune was the uncertain weather, though it brightened somewhat in the afternoon.
Not withstanding these disadvantages, the association and its officiers indefatigably worked for and achieved a thoroughly successful carnival.
The various events were keenly contested, and tha performances of Duke Kahanamoku, the famous Hawaiian, were interesting and appreciated.
His swimming partner, George Cunha, was regrettably unable to appear, as he was suffering from disentery.
He is in the hands of Dr. Hopkins.
As at the other stages of the canival, there were many ladies present, and there were altogether abot 800 spectators.
The receipts amounted to £23/13/.
The Railway Band gave pleasure with its bright musical selections.
An offset against George Cunha's non-appearance the "Duke" gave a fine exhibition of various strokes, comparing the American with the Australian style, and was loudly applauded.
ln the 100 yards Invitation Handicap the "Duke" swam splendidly, his time being only one second outside the world record put up by himself in Sydney on January 2.

Sydney Morning Herald
26 January 1915 page 10.


The Hawaiian party will arrive in Sydney from Queensland on February 4 and carry out a programme of events, a list of which appeared in Saturday's "Herald".
In New Zealand  a programme has been arranged from February 23 to March 27, but this has to be altered to be allowed for the party returning home from Auckland on the "Niagra" on March 23.
It will thus be seen that no date is available for a swimming gala.
Further, that the departure fromSydney cannot be postponed in view of the big list of fixtures to be gone through there.

The executive had practically arranged another of raising a sum for patriotic purposes for Friday 19th, at which the Hawaiian party were to be made the means of adding to the price of admission by auctioning several surf boards made by themselves; but the departure of the Wellington boat on Friday, 19th February, instead of Saturday the 20th, has also made this impossible.
However the executive still has the matter of a patriotic function in hand, and will make a definitive answer later.

The Manly Lifesaving Club has arranged to visit Melbourne to go through some lifesaving contests with the Melbourne Club.
As the party will include Wyld, Hay, Haie, and Adrian, and will be in Melbourne for the visit of Kahanamoku, it should add materially to the attractions for the gala to be held.
Sydney Morning Herald

26 January 1915 page 18.


Kahanamoku will appear at the Dee Why Lifesaving and Surf Club's carnivalon Saturday February
At this gathering the Surf Bathing Association's ??? for rescue and rescusitation drill will be decided.

New York Times
January 26, 1915, Tuesday, page 9.

Duke Kahanamoku Does 100 Yards in Sydney in 53 3-5 Seconds.
Special cable to the New York Times.

San Francisco, Cal, Jan. 25 - A new mark for the 100 yard swim has been set by Duke Kahanamoku, the Honolulu champion, according to word received here today from Sydney, N.S.W
The Duke swam the distance in 0:53 3-5 seconds which beat all former records.
The best previous time was that of C. M. Daniels, who in four turns in a freshwater tank, made the distance in 0:54 4-5 Seconds.

The St. George Call
30 January 1915, page 4.


On Sunay afternoon, February 7th, at about 3 in the afternoon, Duke Kahanamoku, the world's natatorial marvel will be seen at Cronulla beach.
He is accepting the hospitality of the Cronulla boys in the form of a day's outing around the beauty spots of the Shire, and will swim in the afternoon as mentioned.

Sydney Morning Herald
Saturday 30 January 1915 page 18.


The last Sydney appearance of Kahanamoku, the world's champion sprint swimmer, will take place at [?] Drummoyne Club's carnival on February 8.
The committee has arranged with the Hawaiian to appear in a special 100 yards invitation handicap, in which ...


Kahanamoku will appear at the Dee Why Life-saving and Surf Club's carnival on Saturday February 7th.

At this gathering the Surf-bathing Association's, [final] round of the championship for rescue and resuscitation drill will be decided.

1915 'DEE WHY SORF BATHING CLUB.', The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), 30 January, p. 18, viewed 4 February, 2015,

Autographed Postcard, Feb 11, 1915.
 E. S. Marks was  prominant in Sydney sports.
Sydney's premier athletic track is named 
The E.S. Marks Field.
Postcard reproduced from private collection.

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Geoff Cater (2008-211) : Newspapers : Duke Kahanamoku, January 1915.