pods for primates : a catatogue of surfboards in australia since 1900
home catalogue history references appendix

Return to Surfer
                        Bio menu
newspapers : 1914 
  Newspaper Extracts : 1914
Duke Paoa Kahanamoku's Australian Tour

See: Newspaper Menu : Introduction.

1 January 1914 : 
16 February 1914 : 
2 December 1914 : 
2 December 1914 : 
9 December 1914 : 
9 December 1914 : 
15 December 1914 : 
16 December 1914 : 
16 December 1914 : 
22 December 1914 : 
22 December 1914 : 
23 December 1914 : 
23 December 1914 : 
24 December 1914 : 
25 December 1914 : 
25 December 1914 : 
26 Decenber 1914 : 
29 December 1914 : 
30 December 1914 : 
Surfboard Injury, Yamba.
Miss Leatham Competes at Carnival, Dee Why. 
Preparations for Duke Carnivals, Sydney.
Duke Tour Extended to NZ, Sydney.
DukeExpected Next Week, Sydney.
Duke and Party Have Left Honolulu, Sydney.
Duke Arrives - Boardriding Anticipated, Sydney.
Duke Interviewed - Can Build Board Here, Sydney.
Duke Arrives, Sydney.
Duke Surfboard Exhibition Announced, Freshwater.
Tommy Walker Surfboard Exhibition Announced, Yamba.
Amateur Status for Duke and Cunha, Sydney.
Duke's Surfboard Exhibition Cancelled, Freshwater.
Duke's Surfboard Exhibition, Freshwater.
Duke's Surfboard Exhibition and Photograph, Freshwater.
Duke's Surfboard Exhibition, Freshwater.
Surfboard Exhibition Advertisement, Yamba. 
C. Walker Surfboard Exhibition Announced, Yamba.
Duke's Surfboard Exhibition, Freshwater.

Northern Star.
Lismore, Thursday 1 January 1914, page 7.


Although  two minor accidents occurred at Yamba, during the holidays, it is pleasing to know that no accidents with accidents with  fatal results happened.
Miss Blaxland, a young Grafton lady, was the victim of a nasty accident.
While playing on the rocks in the vicinity of the beach she fell and sustained a nasty cut on the hand.
She was taken to the resuscitation room of the Life Saving Brigade, where a stitch, was inserted and the wound dressed by Dr Deithelm, of Grafton, who, fortunately, happened to be surfing at the time of the accident.
The doctor spoke most highly of the Life Saving rooms and was very pleased to see such a valuable collection of first aid materials, all of which were absolutely necessary and effective
Mr. Busch, South Grafton manager of the Bank of Australasia, was also the victim of a painful accident, sustaining a nasty cut on the cheek bone, which, it is believed, was inflicted by a surf board in the surf on Saturday last.
This case was treated in the town and materials necessary for such were given by the Life Saving Brigade.
Surf boards, especially when used amongst such a crowd as was surfing during the holidays, are a most undesirable menace to surfers, beside being one continual menace to the safety of those who do not use them.

1914 'ACCIDENTS AT YAMBA.', Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 - 1954), 1 January, p. 8, viewed 4 June, 2012, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72284684

Sydney Morning Herald
16 February 1914, page 13.


The Dee Why Lifesaving and Surf Club held its first annual carnival on Saturday at Dee Why Beach.
There was in attendance of about 3000.
Nine clubs were represented in the grand parade and march past which was a very creditable display.
Cronulla Club was awarded the prize.

The principal event was the rescue and resuscitation competition for the Gardiner Cup held by the Manly Lifesaving Club but handed to that body to Deewhy for competition.
Five teams entered and Manly Club retained it with 432 (?) points.
The surf relay race was won by North Steyne represented by I. Solomons and L. V. Hind
North Steyne also won the novice surf race and several of the beach events.
Only two competitors- Miss Leatham and Miss Abrahams- started in the ladies surf race.
The latter however gave up before the shore was reached, and had to be rescued.
Another sensational incident occurred in the surf race.
One of the competitors (C. Knight of Deewhy Club) was rescued and brought lo shore in an exhausted state, and several minutes lapsed before animation was restored
Results -
Ladies Surf Race- Miss Leatham (Freshwater) 1, Mrs Abrahams (Brookvale) also started.

The Garden Island.
Lihue, Kauai, February 24, 1914, page 1.


The swimming events at Honolulu Saturday morning resulted in one great surprise, and that was the defeat of Champion Duke Kahanamoku in the 50-vard -race by Bob Small, of California.
Duke, however, "delivered the goods", in the long distance races, Miss Ruth blacker won out in the race for women, and Miss Legros, also of Honolulu, came in second.

Following were the principal events and the results:
440-yard: Duk e Kahaiiamoku (H. N.), first; Lincoln Johnson, (unattached), second; F. Kruger (H.), third.
Time 5 min. 46 2-5 sec.
100-yard: D u ke Kahannmoku (H. N.), first; E. R. Small (unattached), second; Geo. Cunha, third.
Time 54 4-5 seconds.
Lowered Hawaiian record by two fifths of a second.
50-yard: E. R. Small (unattached), first; Duke Kahanamoku (H. N.), second; Geo. Cunha (H.), third.
Time 23 2-5 sees.
Equals world's record.
880 yard: Walter Pomroy (O. C.), first; G. Keaweamahi (H. N.) second; Fred B. Arnold (H. NJ, third.
Time: 13 min. 24 sees.
220 yard: Duke Kahanamoku (H. N.), first; George Cunha (H.) second; Lincoln Johnson, (Y), third.
Time 2 min. 35-15 sec.
50-yard (for women): Ruth Stacker (H. A.), first; Lucille LeGros (U.), second; Miss Lane third.
Time 31 1-5 sec.
1 mile: Walter Pomeroy (O), first; George Keaweamahi, (H. N.). second; George Hushnell, (H.), third.
Time 26 min. 49 1-5 sec.
Lowered Hawaiian record by 55.45 secs.
440-yard relay: Hui Nalu team, Hustace, Kaupiko, Holstein and Kahanamoku; first; Healani team, F. Kruger, Wodehouse. H. Kruger
and G. Cunha second: Pacific only Coast team, McWood, Leary, ociiuitz and Small, third.
Time  4 min. 5 3-5 sees.

The Garden Island. (Lihue, Kauai, H.T.) 1902-current, February 24, 1914, Image 1
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82015411/1914-02-24/ed-1/seq-1/

The Garden Island.
Lihue, Kauai, July 7, 1914, page 1.


The total points won by the various teams in the swimming meet at San Francisco were as follows:
Illinois Athletic Club 44; Hui Nalu Honolulu, 19; Los Angeles, 13; Healani Honolulu, 7; Olympic San Francicso, 7.
The swimming races at San Francisco Saturday resulted as follows:
100 yards, won by Duke Kahanamoku, in. 54 1-5; Rathiel, of Chicago, second.
220 yards, also won by Duke Kahanamoku. McGilvary second.
50 yards for women, won by Dolly Mings.
Time .33 1-5.
50 yards, won by Rathiel in .24 1-5; Duke Kahanamoku second,
Small third.
All of the contestants came in in a bunch.
Continued on page 8.

Page 8

Continued from page 1.

The 440 yards race was won by Langer. establishing a new world's record of 5 22 1- 5.


The big relay race was won by Chicago, the Healanis getting second and Hui Nalus third places, respectively.
Olympic (San Francisco) took fourth place.
A new American record of 44 3-5 was established by Chicago.

The Garden Island. (Lihue, Kauai, H.T.) 1902-current, July 07, 1914, Image 1
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82015411/1914-07-07/ed-1/seq-1/

The Garden Island. (Lihue, Kauai, H.T.) 1902-current, July 07, 1914, Image 8
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI
Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn82015411/1914-07-07/ed-1/seq-8/

Sydney Morning Herald
Wednesday 2 December 1914, page 6.


The large entry for the association's patriotic handicap on Saturday necessitated seventeen heats, even though more than thirty entrants had previously notified their intention of not starting.
The result showed that ii. M'Ghlo (Sydney) had been very liberally treated by the handicapper.
He has only competed in two races this season, and has won both, and his rapid improvement foretells greater achievements in the future.
M'Ghie presented the amount of the first prize to the association's patriotic fund.
The afternoon, therefore, showed a profit to the fund of  £10 entry fees and £2 10s, the donation of first prize, while the trophies, totalling £5 3s, were presented by Mr. James Taylor, president of the association.
The swimming generally was remarkable for the fact that the trudgeon stroke was only nei-n iB «bout tbrojp Instancif, wbj__e Ljie number o, exponents of the "Kahanamoku" kick were numerous.
Some of the handicap men gave the back-markers surprises, and it was not unusual for the scratch man's time to be beaten by swimmers to whom he was conceding a start.
A. W. Barry was tho speediest performer with 24 4-5s. ,

The Sydney, Manly, and Woolwich clubs held events on Saturday afternoon, but the majority of the organisations postponed their fixtures.
The premiers' furlong handicap for the W. W. Hill cup provided some excellent racing, in which handicapper Barry, nicely gauged the competitors.
The fine showing of the sprint champion, together with Thomas, Lovy, and Duff, added interest to the race, the final going to the last named after a most spirited contest.
Manly carried out a popular race relay handicap, the entry fees of which are to be handed to the Association's Patriotic Fund.

The programmes for the three-days State championship carnival on January 2, 6, and 9 have been issued.
The 300 yards and haft mile championships will be contested the first day,  440 yards (free style), and 220 yards breast stroke at the second meeting, and the 100 yards teams race, 220 yards, and diving at the final gala.
Several diving competitions from the high and low spring-boards and high tower, and intérclub handicaps, enter for all classes of swimmers.
The occasion will provide the first appearance of D. P. Kahanamoku, and the council of the association ís leaving no stone unturned in arranging for what is expected to bo the greatest day in the history of the sport in this country.
A paid assistant organiser is to be employed, under the instructions of  the executive, several members of which have had wide experience in promoting such functions.
The members of the association have been invited to send suggestions in to headquarters for consideration.
The scheme includes some new features for swimming carnivals, while the comfort of the spectator is to be studied in every possible way.
With that end in view- the City Council has been approached in regard to increased seating accommodation, a better carriage approach to the entrance, and the lowering of the raill for the gallery, which is rather awkwardly situated for front-row patrons.
A special free display is to be given to school children during Kahanamoku's visit, and already the patronage of many prominent citizens is assured.

Besides appearing in the early January functions, the famous visitor will also show at various other centres after his return from Brisbane.
However, the three occasions mentioned will be his last appearances at the Domain Baths.
An arrangement is being completed by which opportunity will be given to surf patrons to view his work with the board on our ocean beaches.
It is proposed that he should appear at Newcastle, Goulburn, Forbes, "Parramatta, and Drummoyne.

Mr. F. Cummins, selector of the Metropolitan District Harris Cup team, notifies that a test race will be hold al the Domain Baths. Clubs eligible to send representatives are Sydney, Y.M.C.A., Palace Emporium.

The Referee
Wednesday  2 December 1914, page 11.

(By Cecil Healy)
Kahanamoku and the Dominion.

The New Zealand Association has arranged a tour of the Dominion for Duke Kahanamouku.
Definite assurances to that effect have been cabled (to) Mr. W. W. HllI, the hon. secretary of Australian Union.
It was also advised in this message that the required guantees had been forwarded per mail.
The financial responsabilities of New South Wales and Queensland will, of cause, be considerably lightened in consequence of the itinerary being made to embrace Maori-land.
This in itself would be cause enough to rejoice.
But I think we should be even more delighted to know that the sport in that part of the world will stand the same excellent chance of being advanced in popularity and prestige as it will here.
For the same reason it cannot but occasion us sincere regret to meditate upon the disappointing attitude so far taken up by the administrators of the sport in Victoria and South Australia as regards this unique opportunity, particularly in the case of the former State, for raising organised swimming from the slough of despond into which it has sunk in the course of the last year or two.

The experience they have gone through down south, no doubt, was calculated to damp enthusiasm.
When it is remembered; however, that Queensland and New South Wales conjointly agreed to reduce the liabilities involved to a minimum, one cannot help being impressed with the fact that the negotiations have revealed, on the part of the controlling officials, a more than justified lack of enterprise and pluck.
Presuming, for the sake of argumment, their pessimistic estimation of the celebrated Hawaiian's ability to arouse interest, say, only sufficient to enable them to partially refill their depleted exchequer, is not an exaggeration of the position of affairs, it is difficult to imagine how it wijj ever be possible for them to liquidate their debts.
It is, at any rate, comforting to be aware that hope has not yet been abandoned that some means will be found of ensuring Kahanamoku's appearance in Melbourne and Adelaide.


Our thoughts have been so much occupied with the "Duke" that it has quite escaped attention that provision has been made for him to be accompanied by, as the stipulation reads, "a swimming companion," in addition to a manager.
This role is almost certain to be filled by another Hawaiian, who, it is somewhat of a relief to know, does not lay claim to any such fearsome and difficult-to-be-pronounced surname as his famous fellow-countryman.
He is a performer of some repute, and his name is Cunha.
He has made a trip or two to America as one of the Duke's entourage, and has distinguished himself by finishing second to his compatriot in numerous events.
His speediest effort in public over the hundred appears to be 57sec, and he consistently swims 50yds in the vicinity of 25sec.
Cunha, like the Duke, is a natural swimmer, and it therefore goes without saying he will be thoroughly at home under our open-water conditions.
Although, as I have already stated, I believe Longworth will be seen to the very best advantage from 220yds onwards, I do not expect that either he or Barry will break 58sec in the race for the hundred yards premiership.
Longworth has a championship swim of 56 4-5sec to his credit, but he was sprinting exceptionally well that year.

Albert Barry, the present holder of both State and Australasian titles and Commonwealth record (56 3-5sec) , has never yet bettered the figures quoted in an actual struggle for supremacy.
A two-seconds-less-than-the- minute pertormance has mostly been what was demanded to win the honors.
That being so, I am prepared to maintain that the probability is Cunha will be runner-up in the contests over sprint distances.
Cunha should be especially useful for exhibition purposes at places where the Duke performs and there is no local talent available capable of making any sort of showing against him.

The Referee
9 December 1914, page 1.

Kahanamoku, World's Swimmer
Expected in Sydney Next Week : By CECIL HEALY

Before our next issue appears the ship conveying Duke Paoa Kahanamoku and travelling companion is expexted to enter Sydney Heads.
The prospective visit of the celebrated Hawaiian has been the chief topic of discussion amongst swimmers for months past.
During the course of negotiations followers of the sport were confused  by successive conflicting and doubtful situations.
Great was their relief, therefore, when it was known definitely that he would be leaving Honolulu on the 30th.
Their chagrin immediately changed into an all-engrossing curiousity, and speculation as to what this natatorial Paladin is really like has since been aggitating their thoughts.
As the due date of his arrival (Monday next) draws nigh, so does the excited state of enthusiasts' feelings become more apparent.

The circumstances vividly recall Stockholm, and the perturbations members of the Olympic team underwent as the s.s. Finland, with the "Duke" and other American representatives on board, hurried in the direction of that port.
We knew, instinctively or otherwise, that Kahanamoku was the individual we had most cause to fear.
A name is not supposed to be of any significance, but we were not then familiar with the Hawaiian nomenclature and I rather think this was a factor in keeping him in our dread as an opponent.
It had been rumored time and again that the Finland had reached her destination, and we began to greet such anouncements with the same contempt as war scares nowdays.
But I recollect one or other of our party one afternoon suddenly bursting into the room with the startling infirmation, "He's here! I've seen him!"
There was no necessity for any further explanation as to whom the reference applied.
Where we were staying was only a short distance from the "Swim Gladeon", as it was called, and when our informant told us the Duke was still in the water when he left, we immediately rushed off in hopes of catching a glimpse of him.
He was standing on the side of the enclosure just about to take a plunge.
The first thought that occured to me, after I caught sight of him, was that he was not as pleasant-featured a man as Alick Wickham, nor was there anything prepossessing about his physique.
He was tall and somewhat lanky in build.
No sooner had he entered the water, however, than we were spellbound with admiration of the fish-like rapidity with which he cleaved the element.
He worked his feet - which we had not failed to observe were unusually large - after the style of propellers.
The disturbance made by his leg movement increased the likeness.
When we came to study his action more critically we noticed he placed his arms in rather an unattractive way.
But this imperfect was forgotten, almost as soon as noted, because we were unconiously impressed with the fact that in this instance, as regards any aesthetic flaw it might be possible to detect in his stroke, it was a case of handsome is that handsome does.


On closer aquaintance we found the Duke, as we soon began to to term him, a very friendly man.
He was particualy obliging in the matter of giving exhibitions for our special edification or illustrating any feature of his stroke.
He speaks English well, with American mannerisms of a mild description.
One of the first things we were anxious to find out was whether the title "Duke" was an aristocratic appendage, or merely a term of endearment.
We discovered he had not inherited the distinction, but that his pals had conferred it upon him, probably because they considered him a prince of good fellows.

Kahanamoku quickly installed himself a general favorite.
This reputation was confirmed as the competition progressed.
After the first couple of rounds of the 100 metres, it was realised the result was a forgone conclusion, and his fame was firmly established.
Although he was the cynosure of all eyes, and was attracting far more attention than any of the great exponents who were displaying their prowess there, his notoriety never had the slightest effect on the Duke's deportment, his demeanor being invariably modest and unconcerned.

A Mr. Darnell, of London, a liberal donor to the Royal Life-Saving Society, who came across with Mr. William Henry, carried away by wonderment of the marevellously fast performances the Duke was registering, and as an incentive for him to strive to the full extent of his powers offered to present kahanamoku with a 25-guinea cup in the event of him touching 60sec for the said distance.
That the suggestion was not preposterous was shown by his having covered the course at Hamburg, a few days subsequent to the Games, in 61 3-5sec, which now consitutes the existing world record.
Sixty-two three-fifths was acually the closest he got to the mark at Stockholm.

The task set for him by Mr. Darnell was responsible for the Duke swimming a badly-judged race in the final, which enabled me to get much nearer to him at the finish than would have otherwise happened.
I overheard the manager of the American team, Mr. Otto Wahlde, remark to Kahanamoku, on the way to the post:
"Now, Duke, this is the last chance you've got for the Englishman's trophy."
As a result of this admonition, no doubt, the Hawaiian started off at a terrific pace.
He shot away from the rest of us like a hydroplane.
I saw a streak of foam disappearing over my horizon.
That was enough.
I concentrated my worries elsewhere.
But after the motorist had traversed about 90yds he ran short of petrol, and his form loomed up again in my vision.
This occurrence simply electrified me, and minimised my own impending tiredness.

There was another incident that that occupies a conspicuous niche in my memory of what took place on that historical occasion.
It was enacted on the starting platform.
The King and Queen of Sweden and other members of the Royal family were in attendance.
The sale of tickets had been stopped by the police.
Every available inch of space was filled by by the expectant crowd.
As can be imagined, the moment was one of intense excitement.
We had been allotted our stations, and the spectators duly advised of our identity and the countries we represented.
Just as we were about to assume a crouching attitude, Bretting, the German representative, left his post, at the opposite end of the line to where Kahanamoku and myself were placed.
Not a a few of his countrymen, it might be mentioned, had unbounded confidence in his ability to seriously dispute the issue with the Hawaiian.
Bretting walked straight up to the Duke, shook hands with him, turned to me and did likewise (he had picked up the crawl from seeing me swim in Hamburg six years previously), and, retraced his steps.
I had not yet recovered from my astonishment at this proceedure when the Duke's voice broke in:
"Say, Healy, he must think he is going to deliver the goods."
The comment struck me at the time as being immensely funny, and an involuntary peal of laughter escaped me before I collected my wits sufficiently to make the rejoiner:
"Then blessed is he who expecteth nothing."

Sydney Morning Herald
9 December 1914, page 6.


Mr. W. W. W. Hill, hon. secretary of the Australian Swimming Union, has received a cable from Mr W.T. Rawlins, president of the Hawaiian Amateur Athletic Union, stating that Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, Francis Evans and George Cunha left on Honolulu on the Ventura on November 30.
Francis Evans is evidently the manager of the party, and has taken Mr Rawlin's place as it was expected that the enthusiasts had done most in the development of Kahanamoku would come in charge of the team.
George Cunha is also famous as sprint swimmer and has secured many seconds to his companion.
He has covered the hundred yards in 57 seconds and the 50 yards in 24 seconds, and it is quite possible that both first and second place may go to the visitors in the hundred yards championship.

Evening News
Sydney, Monday 14 December 1914, page 5.



Ever since Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, the Hawaiian swimmer, startled the world by his wonderful performances at the Olympic tiamel at Stockholm in 1912, there has been a great desire among Sydney enthusiasts to see him in action.
That want is to be satisfied, for the
celebrated sprinter arrived at Sydney this afternoon at the Veaumt and early next month he will compete at championship carnivals, to be held at the Domain Baths.
With Kahanamoku. there arrived Francis Evans, his manager, and George Cunha, another speedy swimmer.
All three had a hearty
welcome on the whart at Miller's Point, a till Catherine of sporting men Having assembled there
The world's sprint champion swimmer is a well set up young man and a lyotesl islander in his manners.
He is a pure-brooded Hawaiian,
and his horne is in Honolulu.
In addition t«
being a notable swimmer, he is, like all Ha rwallane, an accomplished surf-boarder, and in this respect there is also a treat in store for those who visit the beaches.
World's record!
os to 100 metres are held by Duke— which, by the way is part at his name, and doss not signify a title, as some have imagined.
tune for the distance mentioned is 1min 1 t-tsec and it was established at Stockholm In only, two years ago. is the same month last year, he lowered Daniels' record for 1M yards from 55 a-e sec to 64 3-5 sec.
At one time. it
was thought impossible for Danials' reoord to be beaten and it stood the test for six years, but the Hawaiian succeeded.
That his arrival
in Sydney should, therefore, have created tremendous enthusiasm was not surprising.
it is likely he will have the same warm welcome when he visits Queensland, Near Ktslinfl, and other places in the programme mapped out for him by Mr. W. W. Hill. the. secretary ol the Australian Swimming Union.
An 'evening News' representative spoke to Ka
hanamoku on board the steamer, but thiss Tlsitor was not in a talking mood.
The party will be officially welcomed by the
N.S.W. Amateur Swimming Association at the Hotel Australia, Castlreagh-street. Sydney,

The Sydney Morning Herald
Tuesday 15 December 1914, page 4.


Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, the world's champion swimmer over 100 metres arrived here from Honolulu by the R.M.S. Ventura yesterday.
He was accompanied by Mr. Francis Evans as manager, and Mr. George Cunha, an American resident of Honolulu, who is also a splendid performer in the water.

Kahanamoku, who is a native of Honolulu,  is 26 years of age.
He is a splendid specimen of manhood standing, 6ft 1in. and weighing 12st 8lb.
He is the undoubted sprint champion of the world.
At the Olympic Games at Stockhom in 1912 he won the 100 metres championship in 61 3-5s establishing a world's record that has never since been equalled.
Australia's best time for a similar distance is 64 4-5s.
Kahanamoku, though a sprinter, swims all distances up to 440 yards.
In his stroke, his arm work is similar to that in Austialia, but his "kick" or "foot- work" differs from ours.
He has a special "kick" of his own ; one that has won him renown, and has been called "the Kahanamoku kick."
The feet revolve like the blades of a steamer's propellor, and the champion gets up wonderful speed. In fact, he has been called "the flash," for he streaks through the water over the shorter distances at a tremendous pace.

Kahanamoku has arrived here to take part in the State championships on January 2,  6, and 9 next, in the Domain baths, when among his opponents will be Longworth and Barry, two Sydney swimmers who have already astonished Australasia.
Both have splendid records, and by beating them Kahanamoku will have beaten our best.
After the Sydney swimming carnival, the champion goes to Queensland, where he will appear at several towns.
Then he returns to Sydney, and will give a second display.
On this occasion the Swimming Union will probably in arrange for a surf display, when the champion will be seen on the surf-board.
Matters in this direction have not yet been finally arranged.
Then the champion will proceed to the Dominion.
Victoria, on the score of expense, has declined a visit.
Duke Kahanamoku has arrived here early, so as to acclimatise himself, and thoroughly train for the championships.
He will make no public appearance nor take part in any events, until January 2, when he will be seen at his best.

George Cunha is credited with 57s for 100 yards, our best being but two-fifths faster.
Any performer who can do this will always be a dangerous opponent in the water.
Yesterday afternoon a large gathering met at the Hotel Australia to give the visitors a hearty welcome. Mr. J. Taylor, president of the union, presided.
In proposing the health of the visitors, the chairman said Kahanamoku was the first Olympic champion to visit our shores.
The association for many years had endeavoured to bring to Australia champions of other countries to measure blades, as it were, with our own swimmers in our own water, and under our own conditions.

Though they had sent teams to the Olympic Games, and also to contest the English championships, it had remained to Kahanamoku to be the first champion to come here and measure his strength with our champions.
He expressed the hope that the visitors' stay would be a pleasurable one.
They could rest assured of fair-play in all   their contests, and he felt sure they would get the same treatment from the champion.
Mr. H. Y. Braddon said it was a good thing for these events to take place.
Because of the terrible struggles they were engaged in, there had been an inclination to put off such events, but they all meant work for someone or another, and personally, he thought it a good thing to hold them.
Mr. C. W. Oakes also spoke.
Mr. Evans conveyed the best wishes of the Hawaiian swimmers to the Australians for their kindly invitation.
Their reception had been only such as befitted the greatest sport-loving country of the world.
When their visit was over, it would be said the best man had won.
Duke Kahanamoku said he had been looking forward to this visit for the last two or three years.
He was glad to see many faces he had seen at the Olympic Games at Stockholm.
He would do his best to win ; that was all be could do.
Mr. Cunha also replied.

The Referee
16 December 1914, page 1.

The Duke Reaches Sydney
Impressed by Baths : Distance Events : The Surf Board : By Cecil Healey

The Duke is here.
The celebrated Hawaiian and companions reached Sydney by the Ventura on Monday.

A big gathering of prominent swimmers and officials awaited the steamer's arrival at the wharf.
Many others, however, myself included, who were anxious to be present to greet the visitors when the stepped ashore, were misinformed as to the time the ship was due, and thus prevented from carrying out that intention.

The party consists of Kahanamouku,  Mr. Francis Evans, manager, and Cunha, another swimmer or repute.
To the suprise of all, Cunha is not an Hawaiian native as was thought, but a white man.
He was born at Honolulu and is of Portuguese-Irish descent.
Both he and Mr. Evans are short, slightly built men.
They look small by contrast alongside the Duke, who stands over 6ft.

The tourists were officially welcomed at the Hotel Australia at 5 o'clock on Monday afternoon.
Followers of the sport congregated in great force.
It was the largest and most representative assembly of natatorial enthusiasts ever seen in Sydney.
The guests were recorded a magnificent reception, the hero of the occasion, Duke, of course, being specifically signalled out.

The president of the N.S.W.A.S.A., Mr. James Taylor, who presided, in proposing the health of the visitors, remarked thatthe controlling body had endeavored unsuccessfully in the past to secure the presence of champions from other parts of the world to measure blades, as it were, with Australians under their own conditions.
It had remained for the Olympic champion, Duke Kahanamoku, to be the first accredited International swimmer to visit these shores.

The toast was supported by Messrs. H. Y. Braddon and C. W. Oakes, and drunk with enthusiasm and cordiality.

In replying, Mr. Evans conveyed the best wishes of the Hawaiian sportsmen to Australians for their kindly invitation..
He stated that Mr. Rawlins was extremely sorry at not being able to undertake the journey.
He explained that Mr. Rawlins had recently been elected a member of the legislature and he was debarred on that account from making the trip.
Their reception had been such as only benefited the greastest sports-loving country in the world.

The chairman's announcement of the Duke's name was responsible for a great burst of cheering, which continued after he had risen to his feet.
Kahanamoku did not portray signs of self conciousness.
He faced his audience calmly, and spoke deliberately.
He said he had been looking forward to visiting Australia for the last two or three seasons, and felt sure he was in for a good time.
Cunha also made a few observations.
None of the party, as a matter of fact, revealed a perchant for public speaking.

All my glowing impressions of the Duke (as a man) were re-established.
I had managed to get a chance to shake hands and have a chat with him.
He is a splendid dispositioned fellow, and I cannot concieve the thought of anyone taking other than an instant liking for him.
I make bold to predict that he will have ingratiated himself into the affections of a large number of Australians before departing on his homeward voyage.
I could not detect any alteration in his appearance.
He says he feels well, and his looks do not belie him.
The Ventura struck it pretty rough about 24 hours before she entered the harbour, but the travellers weathered the storm without suffering any dire consequences.


They found time since landing to have a dip at the Domain Municipal baths.
"What do you think of them, Duke?" I enquired.
"Gee! They're just fine, and the water's great," was the prompt rejoiner.
I then asked : "Do you intend to compete beyond the quarter-mile?"
This interrogation made the Hawaiian's big black eyes expand and sparkle, and he answered, with an accompanying broad smile : "I want to look the bunch over first before deciding."
He told me he had partcipated in a few, but not a great many, lengthy races the past year or two.
He apparently does not plan to be a long-distance champion.


We had begun to get reminiscent about Stockholm, when I recollected something I was particualy anxious to know.
Simultaneously, I exclaimed : "Oh! Did you bring your surf board with you?", to which he replied:
"Why no, we were told the use of boards was not permitted in Australia."
Evidently noticing the look of keen disappointment on my face, he quickly added:
"But I can easily make one here."

This information, I am sure, both swimmers and surfers will be delighted to be acquainted with, as holding out prospects of the acquirement of the knack of manipulating them.

I have not as yet seen Cunha in the water, but Longworth, who I consider an excellent judge, assures me he is a flyer; at least, that is the estimation he formed of him after watching him play about in the element for a while on Monday.
Cuhuna is not at all unlike Percy McGillivary, who, next to the Duke, was perhaps the most prominent member of the American Olympic team.

I enquired of Mr. Evans if the voyage across in the Ventura was uneventual.
"Not altogether," was his comment; "we lost a propeller," which made me anxiously question, "Not one of the Duke's, surely?"
Mr. Evans was happy to state the Duke was still of the twin-srew variety.
Bye the bye, Mr. W. W. Hill enlightens me as to how Kahanamoku came to be called "Duke."
His birth corresponded with the visit of the Duke of Cummerland to Honolulu, and he was christened so in honour of that event.
The visitors were located at the Oxford Hotel.


1. The interview Includes a reference to a previous report by Alexander Hume Ford (founder of the Outrigger Canoe Club at Waikiki), in 1908 that surfboards were banned in Australia and Duke's response : "I can easily make one here".
Noted by Thoms (2000) pages 22 and 23.
See Alexander Hume Ford : Beach Culture in Sydney, Australia.
Extract from The Red Funnel, Dunedin, New Zealand.Volume VI, Number 5, June 1908, pages 466 to 470.
The fastest swimmer in the world, 
photographed at the Sydney Domain Baths 
two hours after his arrival in Sydney.
He secured second place in most of the Pacific Coast Championships, and can do 100yds in 57sec.
He is one of the Honolulu party now in Sydney.
The Referee, 16 December 1914, page 11.
Sydney Morning Herald
16 December 1914, page 6.


It was demonstrated on Saturday, in the club events, that our champions will be at the best condition to meet the famous Hawaiian visitor.
Albert Barry probably put up the best swim of his career over ??? metres by covering the distance in 64 4-5s, (Australasian record).
Owing to the large crowd at the Domain Baths, the water was disturbed, and Barry was interfered with by the spectators and competitors during his swim.
He should still do better, and Kahanamoku will meet him at his best.
Longworth also showed excellent form in winning the 200 yards event at Rose Bay in the fast time of 2m. 14 4-5s.
The late Barney Kieran's best over this distance was 3m. 11s.
It will be seen that the swim was full of merit.

Three carnivals will be held tonight.
Randwick and Coogee will hold the Harris Cup 800yds teams' race at Coogee baths; and William Longworth wiII defend his title in the Eastern District 880yds championship against S. Smith, who is swimming particularly well just now.
The chief event at the Abbotsford carnival will be the Western District Championship, and Woolwich club will hold its first gala in aid of the Patriotic Fund of the district.

The Melbourne club is sending what is practically a Victorian representative team of swimmers to meet the Sydney club in the annual contests at the Domain baths on Saturday.
In the breast-stroke they have always been successful.
The quarter-mile event promises to be a very open swim between T. W.. Mason (ex-champion of Victoria), L. and F. Grieve (representing Melbourne), and L. Boardman, C. Thomas, and G. Levy, who will appear on behalf of the local club.
The diving contestants will be N. Griffith (champion of Victoria), A. Sauter (who will represent Melbourne), and L. Boardman, L. McCarthy, and A. V. Barry, of Sydney.
Included in the Sydney Club's programme is the 880yds President's Cup handicap, and the entrants are notified that the heats will take place to-morrow night, at the Domain baths, at 8 p.m., and the final on Saturday.

A special meeting of the council of the A.S.A. will be hold on Friday evening to discuss the question of diving at the Kahanamoku carnivals.
Previously, at State championship carnivals, displays have been arranged by the best divers, but on this occasion the committee have arranged for a competition to be held each day.

Only two entries have been received for the A grade polo competition, and three for the B grade.
The disappointing response to the association's efforts led the polo committee to make a recommendation for the cancellation of the competitions this year, but it has been decided, by a very close vote, to go on with the arrangements.
The arrival of Kahanamoku and party by the Ventura last Monday has formed the completing a link in the great swimming celebrations, which are to take place in Sydney on January 2, 6 and 9.
It is the first time that Australia has entertained an international swimmer, and as as the present visitor is the world's best exponent, it makes the occasion the more memorable.
Duke Paoa Kahanamoku will find greater opposition in Sydney than any other part of the globe, and the entertainment at the Domain Baths should compare favourably with any other swimming function that has been held elsewhere.
George Cunha, who is accompaning Kahanamoku as swimming companion, is a performer of very high merit over distances from 50 to 220 yards, and has he has covered the 100 yards in 57 s, it is just possible that is possible that he may also outclass our best exponents in the sprint championship.
Francis Evans is manager, and has acted on several occasions with Mr Rawlins on tour with the Hawaiian teams in America.
They are members of the Hui Nalu Club, and the party will attend the Randwick and Coogee gala to-night, and Sydney- Melbourne contest on Saturday.

Sydney Morning Herald
22 December 1914, page 12.


The New South Wales Swimming Association has arranged for a display by Duke Paoa Kahanamoku at Freshwater on Wednesday morning, at 11 o'clock.
The famous swimmer will give an exhibition of breaker shooting and board shooting.

Clarence and Richmond Examiner
Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915), 22 December 1914 , page 2.


The fourth annual carnival under the auspices of the Yamba Surf Life-saving Brigade is to be held at Yamba on New Year's Day.
A unique and interesting programme bas been arranged, which includes championship swimming events, etc.
An exhibition of shooting the breakers with the aid of a board is to be given by Mr. T. Walker, who has had considerable experience on other well-known beaches.

1914 'DISTRICT NEWS.', Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915), 22 December, p. 2, viewed 9 June, 2012, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article61640169

Sydney Morning Herald
23 December 1914, page 6.


The fine swimming in the Sydney Melbourne club contests forecasts a strenuous and exciting time in connection with the Kahamamoku carnivals.
Next Tuesday the association will hold an exhibition for school-children throughout the metropolitan area.
The city council has granted them the free use of the gallery and 5000 tickets have been issued to the schools.
The program will include exhibitions by Duke Paoa Kahanamoku and George Cunha (Hawaii), Ivan Steadman (Victoria), and our best local exponents

Kahamamoku has decided not to compete in the longer distances.
He is not a distance or middle distance swimmer.
However, on this tour he has agreed to swim in all championships up and up to and including the quarter-mile; and will appear in the hundred yards on January 2,  440 yd. on January 6 and 220 yd. on January 9.
His companion, Geo. Cunha, will swim in the 100 yards and the 220 yards events on the two Saturdays, and will swim in the first-class handicap on the mid week gala.
Probably an attempt will be made on the 50 yards or 75 yards record, or a teams relay race over 220 yd., two men each racing 110 yards, will be arranged.
The matter will be settled within the next day or so by the executive of the A.S.A.
The second is the termination of the Melbourne club to compete at the carnivals is gratifying....

The Australian Swimming Union received a cable message from the secretary-treasurer of the Amateur Athletic Union of United States, through the Hawaiian Athletic Association, vouching for the amateur standing of George Cunha and the Duke Kahamamoku, and granting them permission to compete in Australia.
A similar statement asked for by the United States Athletic Union regarding the understanding of the Australian swimmers, was cabled.

The Sun
23 December 1914, page 5.


The swimming authorities have heard that through the publication of a paragraph yesterday to the effect that Kahanamoku would give an exhibition in the surf at Freshwater, Manly, some 2000 or 3000 people who assembled there to watch the show were disappolnted.
The famous Hawaiian did not put in an appearance, and he was not expected to do- so by those controlling his visit to this country.
The association wishes it to be made knownn that the "Duke's" first appearance in publlc will take place on the openlng day (January 2) of the championship carnival at the Municlpal Baths, Domain.
The announcement of any other arrangement with Kahanamoku as the central flgure has not that body's authority.

Longworth, Barry, and Cunha (Kahanamoku's companion) put up some speedy performances In the Municipal Baths, Domain, yesterday.
Longworth covered 440 yards in 5min. 30sec., Barry got over 110 yards in 1min. 2sec., which is only 3-5 seconds slower than Kahanamoku's world's 100 metres (slightly less than 110 yards) record,
accomplished at the Olympic Games held in Stockholm, two years ago.
Barry, it might be mentloned, is being trained in gymnasium work by Mr. Snowy Baker, for the forthcoming contests which are sure to excite world-wide interest.

Cunha's contribution to the swimming sensations of yesterday was 100 yards in 57sec.
Entrles for the several events In connectlon with the approaching championship meetlng, have closed, and are unusually numerous.
Mr. Hay, the association organiser for the carnival, spent the whole day Monday and the greater part of the night receiving them.
Those who will compete for the 100 yards honors are:- Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, George Cunha, W. Longworth. A. Barry, L.O. Solomons, H. M. Hay, G. Wyld, J. Huie, Tas Jones, E. G. Finlay, J. Stedman. B. G. Page.

“Non – Demonstration”, promoted for the 22nd December 1914.
Since the NSW Swimming Association had Duke Kahanamoku under exclusive contract and publicizing his first public appearance as 2nd January at the Domain Baths, the proposed surfing demonstration was in legal dispute.
The result was that Duke did not make an appearance, much to the disappointment of a crowd estimated between 2000 - 3000 people.
For Corbett biography see:

The Sun
24 th December 1914 Page 6. (1)

(BY W. F. CORBETT.) (2)

One could hear , in the imagination the roars of applause with which thousands of Australians might have greeted Kahanamoku 's display at Freshwater, Manly, this morning, had the fact that it was to take place been made public. (3)
As it was there were only a few pressmen, some members of the New South Wales Amateur Swimming Association, and the casual Freshwater bathers present. (4)
The Hawaiian confined his show to riding the breakers with the aid of a board (5), such as been used in his native islands from time immemorial. (6)

There are surfboards in the Honolulu Museum  - narrow ones, 20ft. in length, and hoary with age. (7)
But the Hawaiian of today  enjoys what is, perhaps, the most exhilira-ating (sic) and exciting water sport known with the assistance of a much shorter aid - one about eight or nine feet long, 2ft. across, and weighing, perhaps, 68lb.
The board used by Kahanamoku weighed 78lb, and was sugar pine.

He would have preferred redwood , but a properly seasoned piece of that particular timber , sufficiently long, could not be procured in Sydney.
The necessary shape is almost that of a coffin lid, with one end cut to very nearly a point.
The surf riding board is thicker at the bottom than at the top, tapering all the way. (8)

Kahanamoku's control of the improvisation was wonderful, he handled it like a toy and went out  fully a quarter of a mile, riding some breakers and dashing through others with such speed that he completely mystified Messers. W. W. Hill and Hoy (8a), who entered the water with him.
Mr Hoy can throw a 100 yards behind in little more than a minute.
Not at any time in the race seaward did either of the swimmers hold the islander for a moment, and he soon away by himself. (9)
The Duke lay flat upon the board, and with arms widespread, paddled his own canoe vigorously. (10)

Unfortunately the water was not favorable.
Kahanamoku would have preferred a long roll.
He had to face a very short one.

"I'll do my best, anyhow," said he, and despite that the board was new to him , and he had never before essayed the task in Australian waters, (11) our visitor gave an exhibition which won the admiration of spectators who thoroughly understood the skill of it. (12)
It was a thrilling spectacle at times.
This finely-built  Hawaiian, with his powerful frame showing elastic muscles, as better and more enduring  than those of a knotty nature, caught the breaker he wanted , and paddling along for a while rose to one knee first, then became gradually erect (13.) and reached the crest to shoot foreword with astonishing speed and marvellous balance considering the troubled condition (14) of the motive power.

When the force beneath him was spent, he plunged into the sea, and picking up his board went off to try again.
Always was the nose of the raft (10), if it might be so called, kept tilted upwards, whether while shooting or forced against the breakers.
When the surf rider found his board hanging he stooped and paddled till it darted forward once more. (15)
Twice he managed to traverse 100 yards or more, and several times 20 or 30 yards were covered. (16)

It could easily be understood what a display surf riding must be in the ocean which laves (sic) Waikiki Beach  at Honolulu, where a long roll can almost be depended upon.
There 300 and 400 yards shoots are common.
Kahanamoku does not profess to be a champion when in his island home, but he is, he says as good as the very best there. (17)
The ease and grace of his shooting might be equalled, but it certainly could not be excelled.
As showing how much second nature it was to him, Kahanamoku stood on his head a couple of times, and even turned his back to the direction in which he was going, and posed. (18)
Lying flat on the board, the Hawaiian caused it to describe a half-circle or turn completely round without spoiling the shoot. (19, 20)

1. A first hand account, written and published on the day of the event.

2. Reporter W. F. Corbett joined The Referee, (a Sydney sporting paper) in 1888, where he reported boxing, swimming, lawn bowls and both codes of rugby.
He moved to the Sydney Sun in 1913. (Source -Rabbitoh Warren)
After a journalistic career of 37 years, he died in 1923, aged 67.
(Source -the Bulletin, Sydney, 1 November, 1923)

3. The opening sentence implicitly criticized NSW Swimming officials who prevented the demonstration scheduled for the previous day, much to the disappointment of an a crowd estimated between 2000 - 3000 people.
See Corbett's report, The Sun, December 23, 1914, page 5.

4. Only a small number of obsevers were present, compared to the large crowds reported, and shown in photographs, of later demonstrations.

5. The demonstration was with the board only, apparently enthusiasts were also anxious to see Duke Kahanamoku's body surfing skills.

6. The ancient origins of board riding is noted, information probably provided (and emphasised) by Duke Kahanamoku.

7. The boards reported as held by the Bishop Museum probably refers to those ridden at Wakiki in the 1830's by high chief Abner Paki and eventually restored by Tom Blake in the late 1920's.
See #502

8.  The specifications appear very close to being correct, unlike many subsequent versions.
Note the misreporting of specifications in SMH report of 25th December.
The weights of the Freshwater board and Duke Kahanamoku's reported Hawaiian board appears reasonable.
The Freshwater board was made from imported sugar pine, which had some use for surfboard construction in Hawaii in this period.

8a. Hoy, possibly a printers error for Harry Hay.

9. Demonstrated a surfboard's paddling superiority over swimming.

10. Several various terms are used - board surf riding board, canoe and raft.
The term surf board is not used

11. This demonstration is noted as Duke Kahanamoku's first test of board and Australian waves.
Doubt that Hawaiian boardriding was possible in local waves had been previously expressed by Australian swimming and/or surfing officials .
Evidently, Duke Kahanamoku did not.
It would also seem unlikely that he had not body surfed in Australia before this date.

12. The reporter demonstrates some surf knowledge, particularly in noting the unsuitability of the conditions.
More importantly he notes the knowledge of the spectators "who thoroughly  understood the skill of it."

13. The importance of wave choice and rudimentary take-off instructions.

14. Probably refers to a uneven swell or even choppy surface conditions, as indicated by photograph by the Daily Telegraph, 25th December, 1914.
Image below.
There is no estimation of wave height.

15. Further rudimentary  instructions...
- the dismount
- keeping the nose elevated when paddling and riding.
- adjusting stance to maintain trim

16.  Appears to indicate cutting-  that isangling across the wave, as opposed to riding straight towards the beach.
Rides of 100 yards are considered substantial by modern standards.

17. While aware of his own abilities, Duke Kahanamoku indicates that his skills are not exceptional and are attainable by others.

18. A spectatular demonstration of skill.

19. The manoeuvre "Lying flat on the board, the Hawaiian caused it to describe a half-circle or turn completely round without spoiling the shoot."  appears to describe a prone spinner, a  manoeuvre popularized by Boogie boarders, circa 1980.
Possibly performed in the white water (wave of transition), and also noted in the SMH report of 25th December. is not mentioned in any other contemporary accounts of surfing.
"He turned completely round, then lying flat on the board, he raised himself on his hands and swung the board from front to back and back to front, finally again standing straight up." .
20. Although often noted in later reports, there is no mention of tandem riding, Isobel Letham or the Manly surfboat.

The Daily Telegraph
Friday 25 th December 1914 page 7.


The exhibition was arranged by Mr. W. W. Hill, for the benefit of representatives of the press.
The board used by Kahanamoku was 8ft. in length, 3ft. in width (sic), 100 lb. in weight and narrowed at one end.
Going out into the water some distance, the Hawaiian laid full length on the board, and, waiting for an inrolling wave, he propelled himself beachwards with his hands.
As the roller gathered momentum, he raised himself on to his knees, then stood up, and rode gracefully for a considerable distance.
The conditions were not what Kahanamoku desired.
The breakers came over too quickly, instead of in a long roll.
On one occassion, however, Kahanamoku negotiated fully 200 yards before he turned. He also performed some acrobatics, and once stood on his head on the board.
Several enthusiastic surfers amoungst the spectactors endeavored to emulate the feats of the Hawaiian, but mostly the board either shot from under them or turned over.

1. Reporter unknown.
2. This demonstration is noted as the first. It appears to be a test of Australian waves, board and rider, and was not greatly publicised. There have may been some doubt by Australian swimming and/or surfing officials that Hawaiian boardriding was possible in local waves. Evidently, Duke Kahanamoku did not.
3. The reporter demonstrates some surf knowledge, particually in noting the unsuitablity of the conditions.
4. The width of 3ft is obviously incorrect aqd the weight is reported as 100lb. Compare ....
- 78lb, and Hawaiian model 68lb (the Sun )
- 100lb, and Hawaiian model 25lb (the Herald)
5. The enthusiasm of local surfers who immediately attempted to ride the board.
6. There is no mention of tandem riding, Isobel Letham or the Manly surfboat.
Sydney Morning Herald

25th December 1914  page 7.


At the invitation of the N.S.W Amateur Swimming Association a number of newspaper representatives, accompanied some of the officials to witness an exhibition of surf-board riding by Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, the world's champion sprint swimmer, at Freshwater yesterday (Thursday 24th December 1914).

It was Kahanamoku's first attempt at surf-board riding in Australia, and it must be admitted it was wonderfully clever.
The conditions were against good surfboard-riding.
The waves were of the 'dumping' order and followed closely one on top of another.
According to the champion, board-riding on the Waikiki Beach, Honolulu, is a pleasure and there it is possible to shoot in over a quarter of a mile.
Then too, Kahanamoku was at disadvantage with the board.
It weighted almost 100lb, whereas the board he uses as a rule weighs less than 25lb.
But, withal, he gave a magnificent display, which won the cordial reponse of the onlookers.

 Kahanamoku entered the water with the board accompanied by Mr. W. W. Hill and some members of the Freshwater Surf Club. Lying flat on the board and using his arms like paddles the champion soon left the swimmers far behind.
When he was about 400 yards out he waited for a suitable breaker, swung the board round and came in with it.
Once fairly started, Kahamamoku knelt on the board, and then stood straight up, the nose of the board being well out of the water.
But the force of the breakers never carried him more than 50 yards.
On a couple of occassions he managed to shoot fully 100 yards and then he cleverly demonstrated what could be done.
He turned completely round, then lying flat on the board, he raised himself on his hands and swung the board from front to back and back to front, finally again standing straight up.

If the condition of the water is favourable when Kahanamoku makes his public appearance in surfboard riding in Sydney it is sure to be keenly appreciated.

1. Reporter unknown.

2. This demonstration is noted as the first. It appears to be a test of Australian waves, board and rider, and was
not greatly publicised.
There have may been some doubt by Australian swimming and/or surfing officials that Hawaiian boardriding was possible in local waves. Evidently, Duke Kahanamoku did not.

3. The reporter demonstrates  some surf knowledge, particually in noting the unsuitablity of the conditions.

4. The difference in weight between the Freshwater board and Duke Kahanamoku's reported Hawaiian board
is questionable, unless the latter was of Koa, a lightweight native timber.
The Freshwater board was made from imported sugar pine, which was in use that  for surfboard construction in Hawaii in this period.

5. Demonstrated a surfboard's paddling superioity over swimming.

6. The manoeuvre "He turned completely round, then lying flat on the board, he raised himself on his hands
and swung the board from front to back and back to front, finally again standing straight up."  is unclear but
seems to describe a prone spinner, a  manoeuvre popularized by Boogie boarders, circa 1980.
Possibly performed in the white water (wave of transition), it is not mentioned in any other comtemporary accounts of

7. There is no mention of tandem riding, Isobel Letham or the Manly surfboat. 

Clarence and Richmond Examiner
Saturday 26 December 1914, page 16.



7. SHOOTING THE BREAKERS, with and without surf boards, by members of Yamba Surf Life Saving Brigade

Clarence and Richmond Examiner.
Grafton, Tuesday 29 December 1914, page 7.


Surf enthusiasts are promised something extra special in breaker "shooting,"' for C. Walker, the most intrepid surfite of the Manly Club, will give exhibitions of shooting the breakers, standing on his head on a surf board.
The full detailed list ot events is advertised, and a good day's sport is assured to all those who attend.

1914 'SWIMMING.', Clarence and Richmond Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1889 - 1915), 29 December, p. 7, viewed 4 June, 2012, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article61640449

Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser.
Grafton,  Tuesday 7 September 1880
Walker Samuel, Chatsworth
Walker William, Yamba
Walker Charles, Chatsworth

1880 'THE CLARENCE ELECTORAL DISTRICT, 1880.', Clarence and Richmond Examiner and New England Advertiser (Grafton, NSW : 1859 - 1889), 7 September, p. 4, viewed 4 June, 2012, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article62117648

30 December 1914, page 16.

SWIMMING : Kahanamoku in 100yds Championship

Representatives of the Press were invited to witness a private exhibition of surf-board riding by Kahanamoku at Freshwater on Thursday.
It was to have been the previous day, but the intention accidentally became public property, and as several thousand people were attracted to the vicinity, Association officials decided to postpone it.
Business considerations, unfortunately, prevented the writer from being present.

Freshwater enjoys the reputation of being, on the whole, the best beach for shootable breakers, but the conditions, I understand, were far from being ideal on that particular day.
The waves, for instance, were breaking too lose to the shore to permit of a good "run' being obtained, and, moreover, were of the "dumping" variety; also the board itself, which was made locally, was not exactly what was required.
It weighed in the neighbourhood of 100lb, whereas those in use at Honolulu are only a quarter that weight.
However, despite the disadvantages mentioned, the Duke succeeded in assuming the perpendicular, and negotiating several shoots in his familiar poster attitude.
One one occasion, whilst laying flat on the board, with a deft movement he swung the board right about, and proceeded backwards for a while before repeating the action and facing shorewards again.
A number of our leading surfers were spectators of the display, and from what I can gather the general impression amoungst them was that he did wonderfully well under the circumstances, but they feel sure it merely amounted to an indication of what he is capable of doing under more favorable conditions.
They have no doubt that when he has the opportunity to adapt himself to the vagaries of our surf, and strikes a suitable day, he will be able to do things of a really sensational nature.
The dextrous manner in which he handled the heavy board when taking it out through the breakers would appear to have greatly suprised the Sydney men.

Record entries have been received for the year's State championships.
Two are to be decided at the initial carnival, which is to be held at the Domain Baths next Saturday afternoon, namely the 100yds and 880yds.
The Olympic champion, Duke Kahanamoku, and his brilliant travelling companion, George Cunha, are competing in the former event.
It will be their first public appearance in competition.
Incidentally, it will consitute the first occasion that an overseas champion has ever raced in Australia.

Autographed Postcard, Feb 11, 1915.
 E. S. Marks was  prominant in Sydney sports and was a member of the Manly Surf Club in 1910.
S and G Champion (2000) page 134.
Sydney's premier athletic track is named 
The E.S. Marks Field.
Postcard reproduced from private collection.

Return to Surfer Bio menu
home catalogue history references appendix

Geoff Cater (2008-2012) : Newspapers : Duke Kahanamoku, 1914.