Source Documents
cummins : waialuai, nth shore, oahu, 1875 

John A. Cummins : Waialuai, North Shore, Oahu, 1875.
John A. Cummins : Hawaiian Hospitality, Oahu, 1875.
as told to James W.
Sunday Advertiser, August 21, 1904, pages 5-6.

Reprinted in
Girvin, James W. : The Master Planter;
or Life in the Cane Fields of Hawaii

 Press of the Hawaiian Gazette Co.,

Composed by James W. Girvin, but based on the recollections of John A. Cummins, "one of the last of the Hawaiian Chiefs",  the article was initially printed over two pages under the title Hawaiian Hospitality in the Sunday Advertiser, published by Honolulu's Pacific Commercial Advertiser, in August, 1904.
It was reprinted in Girvin's
The Master Planter in 1910, four years after he drowned in Honolulu harbour..
The text and format of is reproduced from from the book of 1910.
At the end of 1875 Cummins was charged with organising at tour of Oahu for
the Queen Emma, wife of the late King Kamehameha IV.
The tour was a great success and featured
fishing sports, the forced opening of a lagoon for water-surf, called Pue-wai, and towing an outrigger canoe with horses at speed parallel to the beach.
There was swimming, high jumping, diving at the Kaliuwaa waterfalls, and at Waialua, on the north shore, every surfboard in the vicinity was in use, and there were some rare actors amongst this mass of people, who hailed from all parts of the island.
Girvin, James W. 1844-1906.

wikipedia: John Adams Cummins

wikipedia: Queen Emma of Hawaii

Chronicling America
The Pacific Commercial Advertiser
August 21, 1904, Sunday Advertiser, Page 5, Image 5

About The Pacific Commercial Advertiser.
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, 1885-1921

Girvin, James W. : The Master Planter, Honolulu,1910.
Hathi Trust

Page IX
In the year 1906, Mr. James W. Girvin was Librarian for the Hawaiian Gazette Company.
Through my connection with the same company, I became well acquainted with Mr. Girvin, and he unfolded to me, at divers times, a mind stored brimful of useful knowledge.
The press work upon the book was well under way at the time of Mr. Girvin's accidental death from drowning on the 11th of December, 1906.
Of course, the work came to a sudden standstill then.
Later it was decided to publish the book, following Mr. Girvin's known ideas in regard to it as closely as possible-and a large package of proofsheets and manuscript, just as Mr. Girvin had left it, was entrusted to me for disentanglement and completion.
I found the closing words had not been written, or if written were not found, so I have supplied them.

Page X

The hero of the story is a composite character, exemplifying the sterling worth of the pioneers to Hawaii, who made of it the most advanced cane sugar producing country in the world.
Mr. Girvin made the story of "The Master Planter" the vehicle for conveying to the public a great fund of useful information that he had gathered in many years of keen observation.

Honolulu, 1910.

Page 21

They galloped across the plains to Waikiki and watched the natives disporting in the sea.
To sit under a hau tree and watch the king and his people riding the surf on boards or in canoes was one of the treats.
Surely, of all aquatic sports, this must be the one which afforded the greatest amusement.
The dexterity with which they handled their surf-boards, and fearlessness with which they rode waves that threatened certain destruction, was a most fascinating sight to a stranger.

Page 72


HERE the author takes the liberty of inserting a chapter which has appeared in the Commercial Advertiser, and which, although written by himself, was said to be the best pen picture of Hawaiian hospitality and customs which has appeared in print.
The edition was soon exhausted, there being many demands for it to send abroad.
Editior Advertiser: --- hand you herewith a description of a tour around the Island of Oahu as told to me by my friend, the lion, John A. Cummins (one of the last of the
Hawaiian Chiefs), which I am sure will be of interest to many of your old-time subscribers, and also will show the malihinis how the Hawaiians entertained.
Yours truly, JAS. W. Girvin.

On October 10th, 1875, I received a letter from Her Majesty Queen Emma, stating that she wished to see me.
As I had opposed her election and she knew I had been very instrumental in securing the election of H. M. Kalakaua, on calling
at her house I was agreeably surprised at the pleasant reception she gave me.
However, her husband, the late King Kamehameha IV, and I had been schoolmates and intimate friends, and during his reign I frequently entertained him at Waimanalo, and on more than one occasion I had the opportunity of doing some kindness for Her Majesty.
She made no mention of the past opposition to her, but asked me to accompany her on a tour around the Island of Oahu.

Page 73

Being familiar with the sports of the Hawaiians and somewhat posted in Hawaiian mythology and occult mysteries, as well as being an adept at fishing and the preparation of the foods of the people, I knew I could make her tour a pleasant one.
At that time I had considerable resources at command, being the konohiki, or lord of Waimanalo, and owner of hundreds of horses and cattle.
The Queen asked me to fix a date convenient to me for the beginning of the grand tour, and requested me to take charge of all the details of the procession.
I decided that Guy Fawkes' Day, the 5th of November, should be the day of leaving Honolulu.
Notices were put in the papers and also posters sent to prominent parties in different parts of the island, fixing dates at which the cavalcade would arrive, and I endeavored to meet all those arrangements.

Page 74
Kuliono and Makapuu.

At Kuliouou we were entertained at luncheon by Mr. and Mrs. Pico ...

We got away from there at 1 p.m. and rode down across the plains of Kaea, Kamehame, and along the paved way to the foot of Makapuu.
 As the procession wended its way onward every three hundred yards an arch bearing a motto in the Hawaiian language presented itself, welcoming Her Majesty to the Koolaus.
No two of these mottos were alike, and some were from the ancient hidden tongue known only to the chiefs.
These letters were constructed of combustibles and burned until the whole cavalcade reached my home-place, "Mauna Rose," a distance of four miles. Waimanalo.

Page 75

After breakfast, on the first day, all parties proceeded to amuse themselves in such manner as life in the country afforded. Probably half of the party went to the mountains to gather maile, awapuhi, ohawai, palapalai and hala fruit to make leis for the
The other half remained at home; and I prepared some rare fishing sports.
It was a great day with the fishermen, who excel in that part of the island.
Quantities of fish of many kinds were caught.
Amongst these were honu or turtle, ula, opihi, okala, uhu, Ipalani, hee, ohua, manini, kumu and others.
Fisherman Malokea, and his large gang of men and women with sweeping nets caught lots of moi, sandfish, akule, and others, the sweepers covering a distance of

Page 76

five miles of beach from Muliwaiolena to Puukiloia.
Her Majesty and most of the party had a sea-bath and witnessed sports on the water before returning to Mauna Rose.

Puewai of Puha.

In the meantime I had a gang of men at work preparing to open the bar at the mouth of Puha river.
This bar or dam had accumulated for some years and much water was backed up.
I had seen this opened on a former occasion, and the sports of the natives in swimming the raging waters, and determined to give
Her Majesty and party a view of this ancient sport.
To this end I had a gang of men cut and carry away much of the embankment so that but little would be required to bring down the flood.
An opening of 20 feet or more having been made in the dam the water rushed out at the rate of 30 knots or more.
The bore or surge caused was very high, and only two men and two women dared to play on this water-surf, called Pue-wai.
One strong man of fine form went across and back holding up the tip end of his malo.
This was the grand sport of the day and was the subject of comment by all who witnessed it.
Her Majesty presented each of these four with $100 and four pair of red blankets.
"Hee-Pue-Wai" was a bye-word for several (lays thereafter.

Page 78
Kamealoha had two large thatch houses and a large school house at his command for sleeping quarters, and had erected an immense lanai for the luau.
He was a well-to-do citizen, and as gen

Page 79

erous and hospitable as any whom we met on the grand tour.
At night the torches burned and the hula went on, and joviality and free intercourse was the rule.

Page 80

We left there [Punaluu] on Wednesday morning, intending to make Lane's place at Hauula that night, and had forwarded much of our provisions and paraphernalia there.
When about to start from Punaluu one of the principal natives, Keaunui, invited the Queen to take a surf-ride in his two and one-half fathom [
15ft - 4.5m
] canoe.
He was a very large and fine-looking man, and had a great local reputation.
He had about fifty fathoms of small line and two horses, the intention being to pull the canoe just inside the breakers, parallel with the beach for a distance of four miles.
The beach terminated at his house, where he had prepared a fine luau for the Queen and party.
Her Majesty declined to go in the canoe with Keaunui, but said she would go with me, having more confidence in my care of her. We got out of the buggy and I purchased 125 fathoms of line at a Chinese store, and one of my boys took the kinks out of it.
I had it made fast close to the fore outrigger of the canoe so that it forced the canoe out about 100 fathoms.
I had nothing on but a malo and broad-rimmed straw hat.
The Queen left her shoes and stockings and got into the canoe and sat down, holding firmly by the out-rigger.
The beach was crowded with people to witness the great sight of a Queen taking a perilous ride in the surf.
I had two good horses at the end of the long rope and gave the canoe a strong shove out to sea and jumped in at the same time. The horses went full speed along the beach.
I turned my paddle up and kept the canoe out the full length of the rope, and the speed must have been thirty knots.
Then I played with the Queen, dipping the out-rigger into the sea, which threw the spray over us, causing a rainbow to those on the beach.
The Chinese left their rice fields to see this great surf-riding.
In the canoe the Queen only was visible.
We had the rushing of the surf and the speed of the horses to propel us, and flew through the water.
Her Majesty enjoyed the perilous surf ride, although she was wet through and through when we landed at Keaunui's house.
Eight strapping kanakas lifted the canoe and both of us out of the sea and carried us up to the house at Kallaka, Koolauloa. Although Kealunti had his feast ready, we had to go up to Kaliuwaa waterfalls to bathe and get the brine off and change our clothing.
The natives carried both the Queen and myself to Kaliuwaa.
Kekela, the Queen's

Page 81

mother, remained at Kapaka until our return.
This waterfall is also one of the historical points on the Island of Oahu, about which many legends are told.
After swimming, high jumping, diving and other sports in which the large crowd joined in the beautiful pool there, refreshing drinks were passed around amidst great hilarity.
The pool is about fifty feet across, very cold and quite deep.

Page 83

Four days in Waialua seemed to me to be too much, but it did not seem that way to the people, as they appeared to enjoy themselves very much.
Every meal was crowded with them.
Bathing parties were in the sea at all times, as were fishing coteries, while others were visiting the uplands.
It was curious to me to note that I had no trouble with this army of friends, but they were well disciplined and polite.
Assuredly Waialua never saw such a sight before and never will again.
Every surfboard in the vicinity was in use, and there were some rare actors amongst this mass of people, who hailed from all parts of the island.

Page 84

After the  luau
[at  Her Highness Keelikolani's house, Moanalua] we resumed our march towards town, the Queen on "Kekonikauaikanahele" and I on "Taiehu," which was a most beautiful white horse with red spots the size of a dime.
Her Majesty and the horse were covered with leis of lehua and pilkaki, and every one of the seven or eight hundred were likewise bedecked with leis.
We led the procession, followed by the whole cavalcade, along King street, up Richards and along Beretania to Her Majesty's house.
All dismounted and bade Her Majesty farewell, and I took my men home to Waimanalo, having been fifteen days on the merriest, wildest jaunt of my life.
I am sure I have neglected to tell much of the fun that went on at each resting place, but the whole was an Hawaiian holiday according to the ancient custom of enjoyment, and it is unlikely that such could ever be repeated.

James W. Girvin

Girvin, James W. 1844-1906.

The Master Planter; or
Life in the Cane Fields of Hawaii
 Press of the Hawaiian Gazette Co.,

Hathi Trust


Geoff Cater (2016) : Cummins : Waialua, North Shore, Oahu, 1875.